17th Central Committee’s “Culture Document” – 10: Linking the Cultural Industries to the National Economy

This post’s translation starts with the “Culture Document’s” sixth chapter. My previous post, translating the 5th chapter, is here, and for an explanation about the document, click here.

This translation leg’s main link: http://gb.cri.cn/27824/2011/10/26/2625s3413678_2.htm

6) Accelerating the Culture Industry’s Development, Promote Cultural Industries to Become a Mainstay of the National Economy

六、加快发展文化产业,推动文化产业成为国民经济支柱性产业

The development of the culture industry is an important gateway to meet the variety of the people’s variety of spiritual and cultural demands. The forward direction of advanced socialist culture must be adhered to, social efficiency1) be put first, social and economic efficiency work hand in hand (相统一), sustainable demands be upheld in accordance with comprehensive coordination, development of a straddling kind be promoted and be turned into a new point of economic growth, into a major point in the strategic adjustment of economic structure, to be included into the efforts that need to be exerted on a transformative way of economic development, and on the support for a promotion of scientific development.

发展文化产业是社会主义市场经济条件下满足人民多样化精神文化需求的重要途径。必须坚持社会主义先进文化前进方 向,坚持把社会效益放在首位、社会效益和经济效益相统一,按照全面协调可持续的要求,推动文化产业跨越式发展,使之成为新的经济增长点、经济结构战略性调 整的重要支点、转变经济发展方式的重要着力点,为推动科学发展提供重要支撑。

a) Building a modern cultural industry system. To develop the cultural industries, the building of a modern cultural industrial system is needed, one that is reasonably structured, including all possible categories, high-quality scientific content rich in originality, and of competitive strength. Some big projects must be carried out in key areas, adjustment of cultural industries be carried forward, publishing, film, printing, advertising, performing arts, entertainment, exposition, and other traditional cultural industries as well as cultural creativity, digital publishing, mobile multi-media, animation games and other emerging cultural industries be developed and strengthened. Encourage powerful cultural enterprises to be active across regions, across industries, and across systems and organizations, and cultivate strategic investors in the fields of cultural industries. Optimize the distribution of cultural industries, bring into play the respective strengths of the eastern, central and western regions [of China], strengthen the planning and building of cultural bases, develop clusters of cultural industries, increase the cultural industries’ economies of scale, intensification, and specializational levels. Increase intellectual property rights, unfold the nation’s cultural splendor as a supporting force in [cultural?] production, and create famous brands. Discover the urban cultural resources, develop characteristic cultural industries, and build cities with distinguishing features. Bring the national capital’s role as the model of a  cultural center into play. Design and build [industrial] parks with distinctive original cultural industries, support the development of small and medium-sized cultural enterprises. Promote cultural industries and tourism, sports, information, logistics, construction and other industries’ combined development, increase the cultural content of related industries, extend the cultural industrial chain, increase the added value.

(一)构建现代文化产业体系。加快发展文化产业,必须构建结构合理、门类齐全、科技含量高、富有创意、竞争力强的现代文化产业体系。要在重点领域实施一批重大项目,推进文化产业结构调整,发展壮大出版发行、影视制作、印刷、广告、演艺、娱乐、会展等传统文化产业,加快发展文化创意、数字出版、移动多媒体、动漫游戏等新兴文化产业。鼓励有实力的文化企业跨地区、跨行业、跨所有制兼并重组,培育文化产业领域战略投资者。优化文化产业布局,发挥东中西部地区各自优势,加强文化产业基地规划和建设,发展文化产业集群,提高文化产业规模化、集约化、专业化水平。加大对拥有自主知识产权、弘扬民族优秀文化的产业支持力度,打造知名品牌。发掘城市文化资源,发展特色文化产业,建设特色文化城市。发挥首都全国文化中心示范作用。规划建设各具特色的文化创业创意园区,支持中小文化企业发展。推动文化产业与旅游、体育、信息、物流、建筑等产业融合发展,增加相关产业文化含量,延伸文化产业链,提高附加值。

b) Shape a pattern of cultural industries with various forms of ownerships, with public ownership as the main pattern. To accelerate the development of cultural industries, unswerving support for and strengthening of state-owned cultural enterprises or enterprises with the state as the controlling shareholder is essential, and non-publicly owned cultural enterprises’ healthy development must be unswervingly encouraged and guided. A core of highly competitive state-owned enterprises or enterprises or conglomerates must be cultivated, and play a leading role in the development of a prosperous market. To the extent permitted by the state, the guidance of investment of different forms into industrial enterprises, participation in the transformation of state-run businesses into [private] enterprises, participation in the implementation of big cultural industry projects and the building of industrial parks, investment approvement, loans, landuse rights, preferential taxation, market entry and mergers, bond issuance, foreign-trade and special funds etc. should be supported, fair market competition and equal protection by the law in a legal environment be provided. Strengthen the services and management of non-public companies, and guide them to perform their social responsibilities on their own initiative.

(二)形成公有制为主体、多种所有制共同发展的文化产业格局。加快发展文化产业,必须毫不动摇地支持和壮大国有或国有控股文化企业,毫不动摇地鼓励和引导各种非公有制文化企业健康发展。要培育一批核心竞争力强的国有或国有控股大型文化企业或企业集团,在发展产业和繁荣市场方面发挥主导作用。在国家许可范围内,引导社会资本以多种形式投资文化产业,参与国有经营性文化单位转企改制,参与重大文化产业项目实施和文化产业园区建设,在投资核准、信用贷款、土地使用、税收优惠、上市融资、发行债券、对外贸易和申请专项资金等方面给予支持,营造公平参与市场竞争、同等受到法律保护的体制和法制环境。加强和改进对非公有制文化企业的服务和管理,引导他们自觉履行社会责任。

c) Promote cultural scientific innovation. Scientific innovation is an important driver of cultural development. Play a facilitating role between culture and technology, deepen and implement the technology-driven strategy, and increase independent innovative abilities. Firmly hold a number of comprehensive, strategic major technological tasks, strengthen core technologies, key technologies, and similar technologies to tackle key problems, sustain cultural equipment, software, systematic research and independent development with advanced technology, attach importance to the definition to relevant standards and utilization of innovation results, improve our country’s publishing, printing, mass media, film, performing arts, internet, animation etc. technological levels, and strengthen the cultural industries’ core competitiveness. Build major cultural-technology projects into related national technological development plans and programs, basing them on national high-technology parks, on national experience in the areas of sustainable development etc., and on the building of combined cultural and technological model bases. Build a culturally and technologically innovative system with enterprises as the main structures, markets as the main guide, and research. Foster the building of a number of cultural and technological companies with distinctive features and strong innovative capabilities, and support strategic research alliances and common service platforms.

(三)推进文化科技创新。科技创新是文化发展的重要引擎。要发挥文化和科技相互促进的作用,深入实施科技带动战略,增强自主创新能力。抓住一批全局性、战略性重大科技课题,加强核心技术、关键技术、共性技术攻关,以先进技术支撑文化装备、软件、系统研制和自主发展,重视相关技术标准制定,加快科技创新成果转化,提高我国出版、印刷、传媒、影视、演艺、网络、动漫等领域技术装备水平,增强文化产业核心竞争力。依托国家高新技术园区、国家可持续发展实验区等建立国家级文化和科技融合示范基地,把重大文化科技项目纳入国家相关科技发展规划和计划。健全以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研相结合的文化技术创新体系,培育一批特色鲜明、创新能力强的文化科技企业,支持产学研战略联盟和公共服务平台建设。

d) Expand cultural consumption2). To increase the total quantity of cultural consumption and to increase the level of cultural consumption spells the cultural industry development’s innate power. Commercial patterns must be innovated, the masses’ cultural markets be expanded, characteristic ways of culture consumption be developed, the scope of cultural services be broadened, individualized, demassified cultural products and services be provided, and new points of cultural consumption be cultivated. The level of culture consumption at the grassroots must be increased, entrepreneurial investment be guided into the building of more places of culture consumption which meet the demands of the masses, the publication of books and press products in line with the masses’ purchasing power be encouraged, amd certain quantities of low-price tickets for commercial performing arts and movies be arranged. Cultural operators on the internet must be encouraged to provide more low-cost services, and locations where such conditions apply must provide adequate subsidies to the poor, and to migrant workers. Tourism must be actively promoted, immaterial cultural heritage and tourism be linked to each other, and tourism be brought into play as a promoting factor in culture consumption.

(四)扩大文化消费。增加文化消费总量,提高文化消费水平,是文化产业发展的内生动力。要创新商业模式,拓展大众文化消费市场,开发特色文化消费,扩大文化服务消费,提供个性化、分众化的文化产品和服务,培育新的文化消费增长点。提高基层文化消费水平,引导文化企业投资兴建更多适合群众需求的文化消费场所,鼓励出版适应群众购买能力的图书报刊,鼓励在商业演出和电影放映中安排一定数量的低价场次或门票,鼓励网络文化运营商开发更多低收费业务,有条件的地方要为困难群众和农民工文化消费提供适当补贴。积极发展文化旅游,促进非物质文化遗产保护传承与旅游相结合,发挥旅游对文化消费的促进作用。

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Notes

1) Social efficiency is frequently mentioned in educational contexts, outside the context of this document, and internationally. I’m not sure if this is the kind of social efficiency the document’s 社会效益 or shèhuì xiàoyì actually refers to. John Dewey and Chinese thinkers (and doers) probably influenced each other to some extent, especially in the 1920s.

I’ve come across Dewey’s “Democracy and Education” (New York, 1930) online, and I would actually like to read that book, but that would take me too far from my translation task, and my current focus on the CCP’s cultural policies and public diplomacy. A critical engagement with Dewey’s Democracy and Education (“John Dewey and our Educational Prospect”, ecited by David T. Hansen, Albany, 2006, page 75 and following pages) describes Dewey’s idea of social efficiency this way (without notes and footnotes included there):

As he developed the arguments he set out in Democracy and Education, Dewey refused to allow the separation that is so often attributed to him by his critics, namely, that of acquiescing to natural impulses on the one side and / or promoting “social engineering” on the other. The error in honoring such a split, he notes, is “in implying that we must adopt measures of subordination rather than of utilization to secure efficiency”.

In short, education is not a matter of the subordination of natural impulses to absolute values, including those of social engineering (or even the other way around), but rather of socializing natural impulses in ways that reconstruct them as constructive and expansive rather than reductive, and far-ranging and comprehensive, rather than exclusive. And the test, as I have suggested, is whether such socialization encourages the expansion of the learner’s intellectual, emotional, and aesthetic horizons, and if the learner and the group of which he or she is a member become more comprehensive in terms of their connections and interrelations with other socializing forces. This is the type of social efficiency that leads to the type of increasing control of habits and institutions that Dewey termed “social control”.

This kind of social efficiency is something “John Dewey and our Educational Prospect”, describing Dewey’s concept and the American educational present tense as of 2006, would not reject at all. They rather seem to discuss how America might come closer to a goal of social efficiency.

2) a paper published by Statistics Canada’s Culture Statistics Program in December 2000 described the term this way:

Consumption implies the purchase and use of goods and services. But how does one define the consumption of culture? A broad definition of culture consumption includes looking at those Canadians who attend, view, read, listen to, participate in and buy culture products and services. As one can see, consumption has both an economic and time-use component. These components are measured in different ways using different tools. Economic consumption can be measured by monitoring our spending behaviour. Statistics Canada’s Survey of Household Spending (SHS)1 is a key source of information on the demand side of consumption. On the other hand, time use is measured by examining how we spend our time by type of activity. Do we go to culture activities and events, and how often? What kinds of culture activities and events do we attend or participate in? Various questions were added to Statistics Canada’s General Social Survey (GSS) in 1992 and 1998 to find out the answers, making it possible to develop a profile of the c culture consumer. This non-economic view of culture consumption is, in one sense, a more accurate reflection of the importance of culture in people’s lives. That is, not all culture activities require a monetary expenditure such as free outdoor music festivals, free museum admissions or the use of public libraries. As well, the GSS looks at an individual’s cultural choices while the SHS expenditure data relate to a group of individuals living together in a household.

It is quite possible that culture consumption has a context in Marxist or other relevant CCP sources, too, but to find out if that’s the case or not will be up to you. Let me know if you find such links.
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Related

» Not so Straight to the Bank, March 11, 2011
» Using the Credit Squeeze, Jan 18, 2010

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Continued »

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