Posts tagged ‘China’

Wednesday, November 30, 2022

Jiang Zemin, 1926 – 2022

Source: Wikimedia Commons - click picture for source

Wikimedia Commons – click picture for source

Jiang Zemin (江泽民), one of the CCP leadership’s many trained engineers, the man who invented the socialist market economy and the three represents, … Relatively untarnished by the June-4 crackdowns, he became the CCP’s chairman (or secretary general) in June 1989, by means of what official Chinese sources usually refer to as an “election”, at the Fourth Plenary Session of the Thirteenth CPC Central Committee.  Jiang had spent some time abroad, as a trainee at the Stalin Automobile Works in Moscow in 1955, and later worked in leading technical and party functions in trades as different as the automotive and soap-manfucaturing industries. His work turned more administrative and governmental some time after 1980.

In October 1992, he told the 14th CCP party congress that

To establish a socialist market economy we must do the following important and interrelated tasks.  First, we must change the way in which state-owned enterprises operate, especially the large and medium-sized ones, and push them into the market so as to increase their vitality and efficiency. This is the key to establishing a socialist market economy, consolidating the socialist system and demonstrating its superiority.

Based on Deng Xiaoping‘s concept of socialism with Chinese characteristics (中国特色社会主义), the socialist market economy (社会主义市场经济) focused on growth – something Deng kept emphasizing, sometimes against opposition from more conservative party leaders such as Chen Yun. Even Jiang is said to have come fully behind Deng’s all-out advocacy of growth once the paramount elder had made his inspection tour to the south (i. e. Shenzhen), garnering local support for his reform agenda, and proving that he was still China’s most powerful man, even if (mostly) from backstage.

Unlike his mentor Deng Xiaoping, he was no revolutionary veteran, and therefore lacked some or much of the traditional authority to head the party’s central military commission at the time. He led the commission anyway, and worked to make it clear that he was no mere civilian business promoter, according to a short news notice by German newsmagazine Der Spiegel in January 1995:

Those who criticize me for raising glasses with Western leaders must understand that this is tactics,

he told PLA officers in Chengdu, according to a central committee document the Spiegel said it had on hand.

I’m aware that the West remains our main enemy.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics has remained one of the CCP’s slogans, even as Jiang’s (and Deng’s) propensity to growth lost favor among the fourth generation of party leadership, i. e. the previous (Hu-Wen led) politbureau. The term socialist market economy has become less frequently used. In June 2011, China Daily hailed the concept as evidence for the wisdom of the CPC and its able leadership of the Chinese people in their endeavor to build a prosperous, civilized, democratic and harmonious modern socialist state and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation only in June 2011, but left no doubt that the Deng-Jiang approach had been second stage in a three-stage development strategy, and that

Now we are striding forward toward the strategic objective of the third stage. From now to the mid-21st century, China will be in a period of in-depth development of industrialization, informatization, urbanization, marketization and internationalization, an important period of strategic opportunities for economic and social development, but also a period with prominent social contradictions.

The three-staged approach referred to by the above China-Daily article of June 2011 had been spelled out by Jiang Zemin’s predecessor Zhao Ziyang (赵紫阳), in 1987. Jiang was to replace Zhao two years later, after Zhao had been ousted in the process of the June-4 crackdown. Li Peng (李鹏), state council chairman at the time of the crackdown, and the Standing Committee of the “National People’s Congress” afterwards, referred to the third stage as a the one where

we will catch up with medium-level developed countries in terms of per capita GNP by the middle of this century, achieve modernisation by and large and turn China into a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced socialist country,

in January 2001, speaking to an audience in India.

The Hong Kong handover in 1997 added to the glorious picture of growth, this time in terms of political power. But appointing the former British colony’s tycoon Tung Chee-hwa (董建華) as the chief executive of the newly-created special administrative region (or having him “elected”) was probably one of Jiang’s leadership’s less lucky choices. In October 2000, enraged by Hong Kong journalists’ questions about if the CCP supported Tung’s candidacy for a second term, and if so, how that support could play a role, if Tung was really to be elected, Jiang told the questioners that they were “too simple, sometimes nayifu”. Tung, deeply embarrassed (by his fellow Hong Kongers, his boss, or both sides), was laughing in the background.

In his angry lecture, Jiang also advised the Hong Kong press people to learn from Mike Wallace, an American anchorman who had interviewed him about a month earlier, in the seaside resort of Beidaihe. It had been an unusual  interview, by CCP leadership standards, one that Jiang had visibly enjoyed, and one that had probably gone very well for him, in terms of public relations. Compared to his successor, he came across as a cosmopolitan, with a certain command of several foreign languages, including English, Russian, and arguably some German. When Spiegel journalists met with Jiang in 2002, they were greeted in German, with no accent.

Jiang had stated the need to deepen the reform of the system of distribution and the system of social security, in his 14th CCP party congress speech of October 1992, but that was basically that. If in essence, the objective of socialism was to liberate and develop the productive forces, to eliminate exploitation and polarization, and ultimately to achieve common prosperity, liberating the productive forces certainly came first. Growing divides between rich and poor didn’t appear to trouble either Jiang, or Zhu Rongji‘s (朱镕基) state council.

Another trend however did – the growing influence of a qigong-related, or buddhism-related religious organization, Falun Gong. In reaction to an incident in Tianjin, a massive silent protest involving over 10,000 Falun Gong practitioners or supporters was organised in Beijing on April 25, 1999. The CCP leadership declared Falun Gong an “evil cult” in July, 1999, and started a lasting crackdown, initially supplemented with extended evening news propaganda featuring allegations against the organization which were hardly more “scientific” than the “evil cult” itself. Here, too, Hong Kong’s unfortunate chief executive Tung Chee-hwa was walking on eggshells, trying to please both his superiors in Beijing, and the public in Hong Kong.

When Jiang stepped down as the CCP’s secretary general in November 2002, he had held the post for more than thirteen years. He relinquished state chairmanship in March 2003, and the party’s central military commission chairmanship in September 2004.

Jiang Zemin was born in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, in 1926. He is survived by his wife Wang Yeping (王冶坪, also born in Yangzhou), and by two sons, Jiang Mianheng (江绵恒) and Jiang Miankang (江绵康).

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Related
» Jiang Zemin’s Health Matters, July 8, 2011
» Tiger on the Brink, New York Times, about 1998

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Most headlines in during Jiang’s life after retirement came from Falun-Gong affiliated media. The close interest from these quarters was no coincidence.

Monday, November 28, 2022

Xi’s Kitchen Cabinet (3): Zhao Leji – two Upholds, never change Color


Much of the following table’s content is taken from the bio published by “People’s Daily” online, on October 25, 2017, when Zhao became a permanent politburo standing committee member for the first time (then ranking #6).

Short Bio

Politburo Standing Committeee — #3 — Zhao Leji (赵乐际)

1957-03-08 Born in Xining, Qinghai province, family background: parents from Xi’an.
1974-07-00 party membership
1974-09-00 Considered an “educated youth” (知识青年), Zhao is sent or “called” to Hedong Township, Qinghai, during the “Down to the Countryside” movement. Hedong is part of the “Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture”.
1975-08-00 Returns to city life as a mail clerk and messenger at Qinghai Department of Trade.
1977-02-00 Studies at Beijing University’s philosophy faculty, as a worker-peasant-soldier student.
1980-01-00 graduation
about 1980 Returns to Qinghai Department of Trade.
1984-12-00 Party secretary at Qinghai Province Hardware Electric & Chemical Products (a Qinghai Department of Trade company), also picking up managerial duties.
1986-04-00 Chairman of financial and commercial workers’ trade union’s Qinghai Department of Trade branch.
1993-02-00 Assistant to Qinghai provincial governor, provincial department of finance director.
1994-07-00 Qinghai deputy provincial governor.
1997-03-00 Xining Municipal Party Committee Secretary.
1997-12-00 Deputy secretary of Qinghai Provincial Party Committee.
1999-08-00 Acting governor.
2000-01-00 Officially appointed as Qinghai provincial governor.
2003-08-00 Secretary of Qinghai Provincial Party Committee.
2004-01-00 Qinghai Provincial People’s Congress Standing Committee director.
2007-03-25 Deputy secretary of Shaanxi Provincial Party Committee.
2008-01-23 Shaanxi Provincial People’s Congress Standing Committee director.
2012-11-15 Member of the CPC’s 18th Central Committee, and politburo member.
2012-11-19 Secretary of the Secretariat of the Chinese Communist Party.
2012-11-19 Holding the office of CPC Central Organizational Department director at the same time.
2017-10-25 First plenary session of the 19th CPC National Congress, CPC politburo standing committee membership (ranking 6th) among seven standing-committee members).
Also Central Commission for Discipline Inspection secretary, replacing Wang Qishan.
Investigates Yang Jing (杨晶), Zhao Zhengyong (赵正永), Qin Guangrong (秦光荣), Fu Zhenghua (傅政华), Sheng Guangzu (盛光祖), Meng Hongwei (孟宏伟), Xiao Yaqing (肖亚庆), and others.
2022-10-23 First plenary session of the 20th CPC Central Committee,Zhao Leji ranks second in the new politburo’s standing committee.

2019000_zhao_leji_hebei_research
Zhao Leji’s (r) research tour in Hebei, September 2019, “Hebei Xiong’an New Area”

What may strike a reader of this summarized biography is how often Zhao returned to previous posts in his career, how long he stayed within Qinghai networks, and how rapidly his career picked up in the 1990s (still in Qinghai, and then also in Shaanxi — see family background, accidental or not).
Deutsche Welle’s Chinese service suggested in an online article of October 23 that according to previous politburos’ practice, Zhao was likely to head the “National People’s Congress”, the CPC’s parliament simulation with Chinese characteristics. This would also match his previous experience as Qinghai Provincial People’s Congress Standing Committee director (2004) and Shaanxi Provincial People’s Congress Standing Committee director (2008).

The following is my translation of a Xinhua article, published on November 12, 2021 (a bit more than a year ago). Zhao is quoted there in his capacity as secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

Main Link: “Zhao Leji emphasizes …”
Links within blockquotes added during translation.

At Central Commission for Discipline Inspection´s Standing Committee session, Zhao Leji emphasizes the positive contributions to be made for self-revolution in the new era, by thorough study and implementation of the 19th Central Committee´s Sixth Plenary Session´s spirit<
赵乐际在中央纪委常委会会议上强调 深入学习贯彻党的十九届六中全会精神 为新时代党的伟大自我革命作出积极贡献

November 12, 2021, 21:34, Xinhua Online
2021-11-12 21:34:39 来源: 新华网

Xinhua, Beijing, November 12 report.
The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection´s Standing Committee held a meeting on November 12, to convey and study the 19th Central Committee´s Sixth Plenary Session´s spirit, and to look into ways to thoroughly implement decisons. Politburo Standing Committee member and Central Commission for Discipline Inspection Secretary Zhao Leji directed the meeting and emphasized the need for the disciplin inspection and supervision organs to thoroughly study and implement the spirit of the [19th Central Committee´s Sixth] plenary session, to strengthen the “Four Awarenesses” [also known as the “Four Consciousnesses”], to strengthen the “Four Matters of Confidence”1), to achieve the “two upholds”, to link together and to put to use the historic experience from the party´s one-hundred years of struggle, to promote high-quality development of discipline inspection work in the new era, and, in advancing the party´s self-revolution, making positive contributions, leading the new practice of society´s revolution by self-revolution.
新华社北京11月12日电 中央纪委常委会12日召开会议,传达学习党的十九届六中全会精神,研究贯彻落实举措。中共中央政治局常委、中央纪委书记赵乐际主持会议,强调纪检监察机关要深入学习贯彻全会精神,增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,贯通运用党的百年奋斗历史经验,推动新时代纪检监察工作高质量发展,在推进党的自我革命、以伟大自我革命引领伟大社会革命的新实践中作出积极贡献。

Zhao Leji pointed out that Xi Jinping, in a speech of profound and long-lasting deep thought and of a strong political, theoretical, strategic and guiding nature, clearly designated the way forward for the party to take bravely and resolutely, for the party so as not to forget the original intention at this new major historic juncture. The plenary session´s “resolution” stands on the Communist Party of China’s summarized political experience of why the party can, why Marxism works, and why socialism with Chinese characteristics works. [The plenary session´s “resolution” stands on] a grasp of the development and discipline of party building. It is the CPC’s political declaration and guide for action in the new era. Discipline inspection and supervision organs must make the study and implementation of the plenary session’s spirit a major political mission, study the plenary session’s documents in their entirety, learn the original documents, become aware of the principles, deeply understand the main points and essentials, correctly grasp the main theme and the main line of the party’s historic development and its main stream essence, and make use of the plenary spirit for common purpose, aggregated consensus, staunch confidence and strengthened fighting spirit.
赵乐际指出,习近平总书记在全会上的重要讲话,立意深远、思想深邃、内涵深刻,具有很强的政治性、理论性、战略性、指导性,为全党在新的重大历史关头不忘初心、勇毅前行指明了方向。全会《决议》站在中国共产党为什么能、马克思主义为什么行、中国特色社会主义为什么好的政治高度总结历史经验,把握党的事业发展和自身建设规律,是新时代中国共产党人的政治宣言和行动指南。纪检监察机关要把学习贯彻全会精神作为重大政治任务,原原本本学习全会文件,读原文、悟原理,深刻领会要点要义,准确把握党的历史发展的主题主线、主流本质,用全会精神统一思想、凝聚共识、坚定信心、增强斗志。

Zhao Leji emphasized that for the iscipline inspection and supervision organs to study and implement the plenary session’s spirit, it is necessary to link closely to reality, to stick closely to one’s duties, to deeply understand the demands of the new ideology, new conclusions and new demands put forward by the plenary session, particularly the important discourse and requirements concerning comprehensive and strict governance over the party, the party’s work style and building clean government, and fight against corruption [must be implemented at work and embodied in action]. We must – unswervingly and with all-encompassing unity and maintaining the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics – continue to learn and to put in real efforts, strive to grasp the marxist position, viewpoint and methods contained in it, and always guarantee the correct political course of discipline inspection and supervision work. We must – unswervingly and with all-encompassing unity – promote the strengthening of the entire party’s “four consciousnesses”, maintain the “four matters of confidence”, achieve the “two upholds”, conscientously carry out the responsibility and mission of political supervision, earnestly guarantee the party’s unity, guarantee centralized and unified leadership, unswervingly and with all-encompassing unity implement the guidelines of comprehensive and strict governance over the party, strengthen the will and ability to fight, promote [a state of affairs / a status when] nobody dares to nor is able or wishing to be corrupt, resolutely carry the anti-corruption work out to the end, and play a positive role in making sure that the party will never degenerate, never change color, never change smell, nor its level of achievement2).
赵乐际强调,纪检监察机关学习贯彻全会精神,要联系实际、紧扣职责,深刻领会全会提出的新思想新论断新要求,特别是关于全面从严治党、党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争的重要论述、重要要求,落实到工作中、体现到行动上。要坚定不移、一以贯之坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,在持续学懂弄通做实上下真功夫,努力掌握蕴含其中的马克思主义立场观点方法,始终保证纪检监察工作正确政治方向;要坚定不移、一以贯之推动全党增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,认真履行好政治监督的责任使命,切实保证党的团结统一、保证党中央集中统一领导;要坚定不移、一以贯之贯彻落实全面从严治党战略方针,增强斗争意志和本领,一体推进不敢腐、不能腐、不想腐,坚决把反腐败斗争进行到底,在确保党不变质、不变色、不变味中发挥职能作用。要以学习全会精神为重点巩固党史学习教育成果,引导广大纪检监察干部坚定历史自信、增强历史主动、涵养历史思维、运用历史经验,不断深化规律性认识,进一步提高正风肃纪反腐工作的质量和水平。

Yang Xiaodu, member of the politburo of the CPC and deputy secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, attended the meeting.
中共中央政治局委员、中央纪委副书记杨晓渡出席会议。

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Previously: Li Qiang #2

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Notes

1) “Confident in our chosen path, confident in our guiding theories, confident in our political system, and confident in our culture”
2) Beijing’s “zero-covid” policy may raise questions about what <em>achievement</em> means in the CPC’s dictionary – I have no idea how they define achievement.

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Monday, October 31, 2022

Xi’s Kitchen Cabinet (2): Li Qiang

The following is a translation of a report that toes a fine line between coming across as a moderately modest local hero, giving credit to your great sponsor, and still make people aware of your personal rise through the ranks. Li Qiang doesn’t visibly dominate the article and leaves a lot of space to Xi Jinping’s role in “Shanghai’s story”.

The article was published by Xinhua, in June 2021.

Apart from that, readers may get an idea of some of the key words in the megacity’s projects, and not least about the world according to Beijing.

Surveys about other nation’s attitudes towards China, certainly when published by Western media, often focus on OECD countries’ attitudes. At least when it comes to third-world countries’ “elites”, the picture can be different, and given the many failures of development projects in the past of the “global South”, the Chinese model does often sell there – especially when it comes with grants and scholarships.

This is the second part of a series about Xi’s kitchen cabinet, the 20th Politburo’s Standing Commission.

Previously posted: Xi’s Kitchen Cabinet: (1): For what we are about to receive


picture_shanghai_that_special_dialogue
Top left: Li Qiang; top right: Song Tao

Main Link: The China Communist Party’s Story – the Practice of Xi Jinping Thought on New Era Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in Shanghai

Xinhua, Shanghai, June 16, report by Wu Yu.
Jointly organized by the International Liaison Department of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee, a dialogue under the name “China Communist Party’s Story – the Practice of Xi Jinping Thought on New Era Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in Shanghai” was carried out in Shanghai on June 16. Titled “Set out for the Dream, Witness the Wonders”, the world was shown the Communist Party of China’s glorious course through the century, and especially the party’s great achievements since its 18th National Congress, [illustrated by] the great changes from Shanghai as the party’s birthplace to the forefront of reform and opening up. 126 political parties and friendly organizatons with more than 740 representatives took part through video link, and ambassadors from more than 40 countries were present at the meeting.

新华社上海6月16日电(记者吴宇)由中共中央对外联络部和中共上海市委共同主办的“中国共产党的故事——习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想在上海的实践”特别对话会16日在上海举行。对话会以“启航梦想,见证奇迹”为主题,通过上海从中国共产党的诞生地到中国改革开放前沿阵地的沧桑巨变,向世界展现中国共产党百年光辉历程,特别是党的十八大以来以习近平同志为核心的党中央带领中国取得的伟大成就。来自近100个国家、126个政党和友好组织的740多名代表通过视频连线参加对话会,40多个国家驻华大使现场出席会议。

Li Qiang, member of the CPC Central Committee’s Politburo and Secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee, said in his address that Shanghai is the birthplace of the CPC, the place from where the CPC’s dream set out, a window for the world on China, a hub that connects China with the world, and a main carrier for major national strategies. Since the CPC’s 19th National Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping has personally visited Shanghai in four consecutive years, issued strategic arrangements for Shanghai’s development, poured in great momentum, Shanghai became more radiant by the day, an even more dazzling pearl of the Orient.
Binding together the vivid stories of the rise of Luziazui Financial City‘s rise, the Huangpu and Suzhou Rivers’ shoreline linkup, the “two networks” in step with the municipality (integrated online government services, “management on one website”), [Li Qiang] described Shanghai’s concrete practice in Pudong’s development and opening up, in people’s city building and megacity administration. He said that under the guidance of Xi Jinping’s Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Thought, Shanghai will unswervingly follow the road of liberating thought, deepening reform, orientation towards the world, and of broadening openness, of smashing routine, creating new breakthroughs, and of constantly producing extraordinary achievements that are worthy of the party’s place of origin.

中共中央政治局委员、上海市委书记李强在致辞中表示,上海是中国共产党的诞生地,是中国共产党梦想启航的地方,也是世界观察中国的窗口、中国链接世界的枢纽、国家重大战略的重要承载地。中共十九大以来,习近平总书记连续四年亲临上海,为上海发展作出战略擘画、注入强大动力,上海正日益焕发出更加璀璨的光彩,成为更加耀眼的东方明珠。李强结合陆家嘴金融城兴起、黄浦江苏州河“一江一河”岸线贯通、政务服务“一网通办”和城市运行“一网统管”“两张网”建设等生动故事,讲述了上海在浦东开发开放、人民城市建设、超大城市治理方面的具体实践,表示上海将在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,坚定走解放思想、深化改革之路,面向世界、扩大开放之路,打破常规、创新突破之路,不断创造无愧于党的诞生地的不凡业绩。

Song Tao, director of the International Liaison Department of the Chinese Communist Party, said that Shanghai, as the place where the dream of the Communist Party of China had set out from, had witnessed the beginnings of the great cause of the CPC’s founding, witnessed the quantum leap of China standing up, prospering and its rise to become a strong country. Over the past century, the CPC had persisted in following the goal of the people’s happiness, in the struggle towards the goal of the nations’s great rejuvenation, and especially since the party’s 18th national congress, under the strong leadership of the party’s central committee with Xi Jinping as the core, all the party’s and the state’s undertakings had achieved historic successes. The masses’ sense of gain, feeling of happiness and sense of security had been enormously improved, and so had China’s international status and influence. The Communist Party had also always striven for the cause of mankind’s progress. As for the future, the CPC wants to work with political parties from all the countries of the world to strengthen friendly contacts, to bring together the majestic power of building the Community of common destiny for mankind, and to make new and greater contributions global peaceful development and the progress of mankind.

中共中央对外联络部部长宋涛表示,上海作为中国共产党梦想启航地方,见证了中国共产党成立这一开天辟地的大事,见证了中国从站起来到富起来、强起来的伟大飞跃。一百年来,中国共产党坚持把为人民谋幸福、为民族谋复兴作为奋斗目标,特别是党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,党和国家的各项事业取得历史性成就,人民群众的获得感、幸福感和安全感极大提升,中国的国际地位和影响力极大提升。中国共产党也一直为人类进步事业而奋斗。展望未来,中国共产党愿同世界各国政党加强友好往来,凝聚构建人类命运共同体的磅礴力量,为世界和平发展和人类进步事业作出新的更大贡献。

The representatives of political parties etc. participating in the meeting earnestly listened to the story of Shanghai’s economic and social development and the people’s improved standard of living, narrated by representatives from all walks of life in Shanghai. Chairman of the Socialist Party of Serbia and President of Parliament Ivica Dačić, Cambodian People’s Party Central Committee’s Standing Committee and Second Vice President of Cambodia’s National Assembly Khuon Sodary, the Party of the European Left‘s first vice chairperson Mola, Gabonese Democratic Party‘s General Secretary1) Bounguendza, Panama Democratic Revolutionary Party General Secretary González, People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan vice chairman2) Yousufei etc. warmly congratulated on the CPC’s 100th founding anniversary and its successes that had caught the attention of the world. They said that the CPC’s foundation had not only greatly changed China’s development process, but also contributed significantly to world peace and global development, having become a model for study by the world’s political parties, and an example to learn from. Following the CPC’s 18th national congress, the Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core had proposed the “Belt and Road” initiative, helping developing countries to achieve greater development, vividly adding to the concept of a Community of common destiny for mankind. They hoped to strengthen exchanges with the CPC about government experience, and to advance pragmatic cooperation in all fields so as to benefit all countries and peoples even better.

与会政党代表等认真听取了上海各界人士代表讲述上海经济社会发展和人民生活水平提升的故事。塞尔维亚社会党主席、议长达契奇,柬埔寨人民党中央常委、国会第二副主席昆索达莉,欧洲左翼党第一副主席莫拉,加蓬民主党总书记本根扎,巴拿马民主革命党总书记冈萨雷斯,塔吉克斯坦人民民主党副主席尤苏菲等在发言中热烈祝贺中国共产党百年华诞和取得的举世瞩目成就,表示中国共产党的成立不仅极大改变了中国的发展进程,也为世界和平、发展与进步作出了重大贡献,成为世界政党研究、借鉴和学习的榜样。中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的中共中央提出“一带一路”倡议、助力发展中国家实现更大发展,生动诠释了人类命运共同体理念。愿同中国共产党加强治国理政经验交流,促进各领域务实合作,更多造福各国和各国人民。
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Notes

1)     the title might look revolutionary, but Wikipedia suggests that his party is center-right
2)     supposing this is a man

To be continued.

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Related

Many Miracles, “China Daily”, June 18, 2021
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Monday, October 24, 2022

Xi’s Kitchen Cabinet (1): For what we are about to receive

In an effort to better understand China, let’s take a look at the six men who are going to complement the People’s Leader during the coming five years (if none of them turns out to be Lin Biao II). A lot may have been written about them already, and a lot is going to be written, but let’s listen to the members of the Politburo Standing Committee themselves. 

liang_yan_xis_kitchen_cabinet

No interviews, I suppose, but we can turn to their publications, or to what they had China’s “reporters” publish about themselves. 

Obviously, I don’t know yet if all of Xi’s six men have provided the masses with spritual nourishment, or if some of them rather qualified by mowing the people’s lawns and darning their socks. In either case, this series shall amount to seven instalments (this introduction being the first). 

Stay tuned …

Monday, October 17, 2022

CPC’s 20th National Congress: “The Party will never degenerate”

2,300 delegates were supposed to attend in February, more precisely, according to Li Keqiang (main link) on Saturday morning, the number was 2,296, plus particular invitees (特邀代表), that would be 2,379 delegates, minus 39 delegates having asked for leave because of illness, i. e. 2,340 delegates present there.

“Major-power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics to be unfolded in a comprehensive way” was unfolded by Xi Jinping himself in his work report. You should be forgiven if you think that this is about Chinese consuls-general tweeting about how America bombs and China helps Africa, or how their tummies bulged with pride when Xi Jinping told the party’s national congress that Taiwaners had no right to be free when 1.4 million Chinese were not.

But major-power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics isn’t a diplomatic market-economy product – it was produced at home in Beijing, by the 19th Central Committee’s Sixth Plenary Session (according to their communiqué in November 2021).

Condensed self-flattery concerning the party’s “zero-Covid” policy (which probably didn’t go down as well with the audience outside the “Great Hall of the People” as other parts of Xi’s speech), and this.

We have kept nailing the nails, thus correcting and punishing the “four winds”, opposed the idea and phenomenon of privileges, stopped some unhealthy trends that hadn’t been brought to a halt for a long time, and investigated and punished obstinate chronic diseases which hadn’t been eliminated for many years. We have fought an unprecedented fight against corruption, and by “offending thousands, and living up to the 1.4 billion” [Chinese people], we have fulfilled our mission to dispel the disease and disorder. The multi-pronged struggle against corruption, by beating the tigers, swatting the flies and hunting the foxes, has achieved an overwhelming victory and overall consolidation, eliminating the serious hidden dangers within the party, the state, and the military. By uncompromising efforts, the party found self-revolution, thus escaping the historical cycle of order and chaos, of rise and fall, for a second time. This has made sure that the party will never degenerate, never change color, never change smell.
我们以钉钉子精神纠治“四风”,反对特权思想和特权现象,刹住了一些长期没有刹住的歪风,纠治了一些多年未除的顽瘴痼疾。我们开展了史无前例的反腐败斗争,以“得罪千百人、不负十四亿”的使命担当祛疴治乱,“打虎”、“拍蝇”、“猎狐”多管齐下,反腐败斗争取得压倒性胜利并全面巩固,消除了党、国家、军队内部存在的严重隐患。经过不懈努力,党找到了自我革命这一跳出治乱兴衰历史周期率的第二个答案,确保党永远不变质、不变色、不变味。

hu_jintao
No offense meant, miserable failure

If Bo Xilai had said that, it would have struck people as populism – but then, Bo never made it into the top ranks.
China’s “Communists” have announced many victories in the past. If this one is as decisive as Xi has claimed will be hard to prove or disprove as long as he remains in control of the narrative.

Just these few sidenotes for now.

Wednesday, October 12, 2022

Thailand: “To compensate for the loss of Chinese Tourism Market”

The following is an excerpt from Radio Thailand’s business news last night (UTC). The program was in English.

20210000_radio_thailand
Better known as FM88 Radio Thailand now, but still on shortwave

Its info that high hopes are placed on Indian tourists, detailing that there have been 600,000 visitors from India since borders reopened in July (compared to ten million Chinese visitors during all of 2019) may or may not be indicative for the overall significance of India as a tourism market for Thailand, but I guess that if Chinese tourists remain absent for a long time, Chinese influence in Thailand could also suffer to some extent. “Zero-Covid” comes at costs, not only at home, but also abroad.

Words or word groups I didn’t understand have been replaced by brackets.

The tourism confidence survey index for the 4th quarter of this year is up 70 from 65 from the last quarter. There is an air of confidence according to the Tourism Council of Thailand that recently unveiled its latest quarterly industry confidence index. It [..] states that a strong recovery from the industry players has been signaled and that business is ready to reclaim its confidence. As one of the countries fastest-growing sector […]. The survey revealed that the industry’s confidence during the 3rd quarter 2022 was up 65, and was expected to rise to 70 for the 4th quarter, noting that the 4th quarter being the sector’s high season and its best time to recover. The Tourism Council of Thailand says it expects tourist numbers in 2022 to be around five million – about two million more than the expected target.

With the latest industry survey, there is a resurgence of confidence that the sector could return to pre-Covid levels by as early as next year, further announcing that the country’s tourism numbers returned to its 40 million mark previously experienced pre-Covid-19. During pre-pandemic era, Thailand’s peak capacity was 39.9 million tourists recorded in 2019. This was the landmark year, when the sector contributed 20% of the country’s GDP.

China was the single largest tourist segment for Thailand with more than 10 million visitors in 2019, which has continued to impose restrictions, unfortunately, on outbound tourists […] thus leaving Thailand to look for new markets. To compensate for the loss of Chinese tourism market, Thailand has managed to attract Indian tourists, where the pandemic has prompted more tourists now to visit the country. India’s tourists have become the second-largest group after Malaysia, with more than 600,000 visitors recorded since the reopening its borders in July.

The Tourism Council of Thailand reported that in its survey revealed that the country’s tourism industry service and [..] businesses have begun recovering, in terms of bottomline. Recent industry reported that hotel [revenues?] has started returning by as much as 40% of pre-Covid level, while 87% of the business were back in full operation. […] [Shortage of workforce also mentioned.]

Despite the positive outlook for the industry and the rebound of the sector, [possibility of] slowdown due to the rising interest rates and […] recession which could dampen travel demand. […]

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Related

Long Yongtu & the Smiling Curve, May 17, 2012
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Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Air Defense Competition, Particular Honors and Promotions

media_war_praparation_mobilization
“Hold on to revolution, advance production, advance work, advance war preparation”
The following is my translation from an article first published by the “China Defense Paper” (中国国防报), a paper run by a “People’s Liberation Army” publishing house which also publishes the “People’s Liberation Army Daily”. It was published online by China’s ministry of defense website on September 9, 2022.
Development of civil air defense reportedly started in 1950, when the CPC Central Committee issued a circular for an organizing committee that would then establish a “Central People’s Air Defense Committee” (中共中央发出通知,成立中央人民防空委员会筹委会). “Baike Baidu”, an online encyclopedia:

The masses are both the object and the force of Civil Air Defense. In addition to Civil Air Defense staff, the important goals of partners like government agencies, enterprises and public institutions as well as from all sides of society are also included, as are all aspects of societal life. Civil Air Defense are manifold, including evacuations, camouflage, dealing with the aftermath of air raids, etc..
人民群众既是人民防空对象,又是人民防空力量。人民防空对象除了人员以外,还包括政府机构、企业事业单位等重要目标,以及社会生活的各个方面。人民防空行动形式多样,包括疏散防护、隐蔽防护、消除空袭后果等。

There have been earlier days of mass mobilization, then against a suspicious power very near there – the USSR, in the 1960s.
The concept of mass mobilisation was confirmed in the 1990s, with an air defense law

adopted at the 202nd Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People’s Congress on October 29, 1996, promulgated by Order No. 78 of the President of the People’s Republic of China on October 29, 1996, and effective as of January 1, 1997.


According to the 1996 air-defense law,

[a]s authorized by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, the major military commands shall exercise leadership in the work of civil air defense in the areas under their command.

The article you are going to read describes three particular fields of competition: satellite communication, mobile-devices communication and shortwave communication.
As far as these fields of science are concerned, the 1996 law stipulates that

The tasks to be performed by mass organizations for air defense in time of war include dealing with emergencies, doing rush repairs, providing medical aid, preventing and extinguishing fire, engaging in epidemic prevention, disinfection and sterilization, eliminating contamination, ensuring signal communications, rescuing people, doing emergency transportation of goods and materials and maintaining public order, and in time of peace they shall assist the departments for fighting against floods and earthquakes in dealing with emergencies and doing disaster relief.

That said, the army wants specialized people within its ranks, not somewhere else. And as Chinese people can be drafted (without being asked), a guideline published (or publicised) by the “PLA” in August suggests that drafts during the later months of this year would be based on skills which are particularly relevant for war prepration.

The article.
Main Link: “I particularly care about this honor” (我特别看重这份荣誉)

From August 30 to August 31, the 2022 Henan Provincial Civil Air Defense System Skills Competiton was carried out in the city of Hebi. In contrast to the past, success during the competiton was linked to the contestants’ professional advancement. For example, workers and handymen, no matter if junior, intermediate or senior workers, can all be promoted to a higher position right away, with payment and status being adjusted accordingly.
8月30日至31日,2022年河南省人防系统职业技能竞赛在鹤壁市举行。与以往不同,这次竞赛成绩与参赛选手个人职业等级晋升挂钩。比如,对于工勤技能岗位人员而言,无论是初级工、中级工还是高级工,只要进入竞赛前3名,均可直接晋升为技师,工资待遇也会相应调整。

This change has been made because the Civil Air Defense System Skills Competiton has been integrated into the 2022 Henan Provincial vocational technical skills competiton plan. “The Civil Air Defense communication skills competition is technologically demanding, strict in its standard requirements, and should enjoy preferential regional industrial and technical competition policies.“ Someone in charge at the provincial Human Resources and Social Security Department’s professional capacity-building office explained that “according to the ‘Henan Province Professional Skills Competition (trial) Administrative Method’, three new items have been added this time, concerning: Civil Air Defense satellite communication, Civil Air Defense shortwave communication, and Civil Air Defense mobile device operators. With certain results, participants qualify for professional promotion.
变化,源于这次人防技能竞赛被纳入2022年河南省职业技能竞赛计划。“人防通信技能竞赛,技术含量高、标准要求严,理应享受地方职业技能竞赛优惠政策。”该省人社厅1职业能力建设处相关负责人介绍,依据《河南省职业技能竞赛管理办法(试行)》,此次新增了人防卫星、短波、移动通信机务员3个项目;参赛人员取得一定成绩,即获得职业等级晋升资格。

“Integrating war preparation competitions, practicing perfect mastery and ability.” In accordance with this line of thought, Henan Province Civil Air Defense Office first mobilized those to sign up who were up to the condition, and then instructed Municipal Civil Air Defense Offices to hold preliminary competitions to select the best from those already best so as to ensure a high starting point for the provincial finals.
“结合备战竞赛,练强过硬本领。”按照这一思路,河南省人防办首先动员符合条件的人员踊跃报名参加,然后指导各地市人防办举办预赛、优中选优,确保省决赛的高起点。

To ensure impartiality and fairness, the National University of Defense and Technology’s School of Communication and Information, counterpart units from Shandong, Guangxi, Sichuan and other provinces, Hebi City Fire and Rescue Brigade and other third parties were invited to send referees.
Extra efforts were made in the design of the test settings. For example, shortwave transmitter-receivers had to work with groundwaves instead of skywaves, because propagation of the latter is variably influenced [by the ionosphere]. This is how variations in assignment conditions for the participants were avoided.
为保证竞赛公平公正,他们不仅邀请国防科技大学信息通信学院,山东、广西、四川等兄弟单位,鹤壁市消防救援支队作为第三方,派出专家和技术人员担任裁判,而且还在赛题设置上下了一番功夫。比如,短波电台要借助地波而不是天波进行通联,天波受天气影响较大,这样可避免前后上场的选手作业条件出现较大差异。

Zhang Guoyin, a high-level worker from Zhengzhou City Civil Air Defense Office, achieved the second position at the Civil Air Defense mobile device operators which means that, according to the rewards policy, he can be promoted to the position of a technician*) right away. “The things demanded in this competiton are pretty much what I’m practising and using regularly anyway, so I could do this quite safely.” Zhang Guoyin told this reporter that to get promoted had by no means been as easy in the past. In 2016, he passed his high-level worker exam, but the acceptance quota was limited, and he was only promoted in 2019.
郑州市人防办高级工张国印,在移动通信机务员赛项中获得第二名,按照奖励政策,他可以直接晋升为技师。“这次竞赛的内容,基本都是平时常训常练常用的,考起来得心应手。”张国印告诉记者,以前晋级可没这么顺利。他在2016年通过了高级工考试,但受名额数量所限,直到2019年才得以晋升。

Tan E, winner of the gold medal at the shortwave communication operators’ competition, is a technician at the Provincial Civil Air Defense command information support center. As far as technicians are concerned, the first three of them [in the competition], won’t be benefitted in terms of payment, but are exempted from two theoretical senior-technician exams. They also earn themselves a title as “Henan Province technology experts”. “I used to be with the signal corps, and I particularly care about this honor.” Holding his certificate in his hands, Tan E couldn’t hide his joy.
在短波通信机务员赛项中夺得金牌的谭峨,是省人防指挥信息保障中心的一名技师。对于技师而言,前3名的成绩虽然不与工资待遇挂钩,但可在高级技师考试中免考2门理论,并可获得“河南省技术能手”称号。“我曾是一名通信兵,特别看重这份荣誉。”谭峨手捧荣誉证书,难掩心中的喜悦。

There were also active engineers taking part. Gao Bing, associate engineer from the Nanyang Civil Air Defense Office, Liu Wei, intermediate engineer from Hebi Civil Air Defense Office, won gold medals in satellite and mobile device operations respectively. These are excellent successes, laying the foundations for their next professional evaluations. Zhu Anwei, second-class floorwalker at the Provincial Civil Air Defense Office, believes that competiton among staff from specialised technological posts doesn’t only help the participants’ maturity and progress, but also provides everyone with role models, goals to achieve, and is beneficial for the promotion of building skilled and talented echelons.
竞赛场上还活跃着工程师人员的身影。南阳市人防办助理工程师高冰、鹤壁市人防办中级工程师刘伟,分别获得卫星、移动通信机务员竞赛项目金牌。优异的成绩,给他们下一步的职称评定奠定了基础。省人防办二级巡视员朱安伟认为,安排专业技术岗位人员上阵比武,不仅对他们个人成长进步有帮助,而且能让大家学有榜样、赶有目标,有利于推动技能人才梯队建设。

Those who have earned themselves gold and silver medals have been awarded, and the others don’t consider their participation wasted time either. According to releveant regulations, those who finished 4th to 10th can be promoted. “A moment on stage takes several years of practice off-stage.” According to what leaders at the Civil Air Defense Office say, having gone through several months of ample war preparation not only brought the participants’ professional skills to new levels, but also built a good atmosphere within the provincial civil air defense system that leans on personal technical skills and on real accomplishment and improvement.
摘金夺银者有奖,其他参赛人员也不虚此行。每项赛事中获得第4至10名者,也可按相关规定晋升职业技能等级。“台上一分钟,台下数年功。”该省人防办相关领导介绍,经过几个月的充分备战,这次竞赛不仅让参赛选手业务技能上了一个大台阶,而且在全省人防系统中营造了凭技能立身、靠实绩进步的良好氛围。

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Note

*) A reformed eight-level remuneration scale has reportedly been in place earlier this year. It includes the ranks of 学徒工 (apprentice), 初级工 (junior worker), 中级工 (intermediate worker), 高级工 (senior worker), 技师 (technician), 高级技师 (senior technician), 特级技师 (top senior technician), 首席技师 (chief technician) – see Industrial Bank of China and the CPC Central Committee’s “Qiushi” (bimonthly English-language edition) for sources
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Saturday, September 24, 2022

Newly appointed Russian Ambassador to China addresses Chinese Public

Igor Morgulov is Russia’s new ambassador to China, replacing Andrey Denisov there.

According to Russia’s state-run “Sputnik” website, Morgulov was born on May 4, 1961 and graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University’s Asian and African Countries’ Research Institute. He speaks Chinese and English as foreign languages (even “fluently” according to RIAC, a thinktank’s website). He held the post of Counselor and Minister of the Russian embassy in China from 2006 to 2009, headed the Russian foreign ministry’s Asian Department next, and was appointed deputy foreign minister in 2011. Still according to “Sputnik, he has been awarded the “For Merit to the Fatherland” medals, order 4 and order 2, among other awards. “Sputnik” also quotes from President Putin’s presidential decrees that remove Morgulov from his previous post and appoint him to his new one, similar to the way TASS newsagency also does.

When you google Morgulov’s role as a deputy foreign minister, you’ll probably get the impression that central, east and southeast Asia were his main fields of work from 2011 to 2022, as well – including Russia’s relations with North and South Korea, as well as the Korean nuclear issue.
As a rule, there appear to be about half a dozen to ten deputy-minister posts in Moscow – see “Current Deputy Foreign Ministers” on Wikipedia. In that light, becoming Russia’s ambassador to China should count as quite a promotion (it’s probably the most important embassy for Moscow anywhere around the world).

Morgulov addressed the Chinese public by video this week, published by China News Service on Youtube on Friday.
20220923_morgulov_china_news_service_video
Click photo for video

Translation:

亲爱的中国朋友们,你们好。首先请允许我自我介绍一下。我是莫尔古洛夫。本月13日俄罗斯总统普京把我任命为新的俄罗斯驻华大使。对我来讲,这是一个很大的荣幸,也是很大的责任。 Dear Chinese friends, pleased to meet you. Allow me to introduce myself. I’m Morgulov. On the 13th of this month, Russian President Putin has appointed me as Russia’s new ambassador in China. For me, that’s a great honor and a great responsibility.
1983年,作为第一批苏联留学生的一员,我首次来到中国。从那时候起,我的职业生涯同你们的古老而日新月异的美丽的国家紧密地联系在一起。在当今的复杂多变的国际形势下,俄中两国建立的新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系具有特殊的意义。 In 1983, I came to China for the first time, as a member of a group of Soviet students abroad. Ever since, my professional career has been closely linked to your ancient and rapidly progressing beautiful country. In today’s complicated and unsettled international situation, the comprehensive strategic partnership established by Russia and China in the new era is of special significance.
在新的岗位上,我愿意同中国朋友们积极合作,为落实好俄中两国元首所达成的重要的共识进一步推动两国关系全面发展,加强俄中两国人民之间的传统友谊而努力。朋友们,下个月我将要抵达北京。期待与大家尽快相见。谢谢。 On my new post, I wish to work actively with our Chinese friends, to implement well the important consensus reached between the Russian and Chinese heads of state and to promote our two countries’ relations further, and to make great efforts to strengthen the traditional friendship between the peoples of our two countries. Friends, next month, I will arrive in Beijing. I hope to see you all very soon. Thank you.

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Related

“Important choice, firm action”, Sept 14, 2022
Restive bulk of allies, May 6, 2022

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