The BoZhu Interviews: If you want to Believe the Best or the Worst about China, it’s easy enough –

Ji Xiang about getting started with China, stereotypes, and finding a balance between Chinese and Western ways of life.

Ji Xiang is a blogger from Europe who lives in China. In his first blog post, in 2008, he explained how he got his Chinese name. And he is probably one of very few foreign China bloggers who started blogging almost right on arrival in the country, and have kept to the habit ever since.

Q: Ji Xiang, you are Chinese by name, but you are actually from Europe, right?

That’s right. My mom’s British, and my dad’s Italian. I grew up in Italy, although I have also lived in Britain. It’s not too obvious unless you look at my blog very carefully though. Interestingly, some of my readers have assumed I was American in the past.

Q: Could that be because your stance comes across as more “pro-Western” than that of most sinologists or Westerners who speak Chinese? It seems to me that both Foarp and you stand out as rather critical of what might be called “cultural relativism”, or a preparedness to find human rights violations tolerable because of a country’s culture, a “situation on the ground”, etc.

Well, I’m not sure if that makes you seem more like an American or not. Foarp is after all British. But to be honest, I think a lot of Westerners who speak Chinese have the same sort of opinions as I do. I don’t think of myself as “pro-Western” really, I am quite aware of all the bad things Western countries have done around the world, and the shortcomings of the “West” (if there really is such a thing as the West. But that’s another debate). But that doesn’t necessarily mean being pro-Chinese.

When it comes to human rights violations, I don’t really buy cultural justifications. I mean, East Asian countries like Japan and South Korea have created systems where basic human rights are respected, so it obviously isn’t only Western countries which can reach that point. The argument that human rights have to be put aside when a country is still poor and developing is more complicated. I think certain basic rights, like the right not to disappear, be tortured or speak your mind without going to jail, should be respected, and I don’t think the right to have a full belly clashes with these other rights.

There might however be a good argument for not holding elections in countries where most of the people are illiterate, or divided along ethnic or tribal lines. Say in Yemen or Burkina Faso. Even in Arab countries, it is clear that elections often bring religious fundamentalists to power.

Q: You went to China as a teacher in 2005, and came back to the country as a student. How did you get interested in China? You’ve spent a number of years there now, haven’t you?

I actually taught in China in 2004, and that was just for a summer. I then went back to China because I got a scholarship to get a master’s degree there. I have spent over six years in China by now.

Q: Was 2008 a good time to start a blog? You might have started one in 2005, the heydays of the (English-language) “Chinese blogosphere”. Was there a key moment where you felt that you should share your experiences, which got your blog started?

Well in 2005 I didn’t live in China, and had only spent a few months there. I had no basis for writing a blog about it. I only discovered recently that that was supposed to be the heyday of the “Chinese blogosphere”. Pity I missed it. I started my blog when I started living in China full-time. In the beginning, it was mainly to share my experiences with my family and friends back home. Now it’s turned more into a blog of commentary about China.

Q: Do the statistics or feedback give you an idea about who your readers are?

A bit. Most of my hits are from the United States, but I think that might be to do with the fact that most of the VPNs people use in China redirect there. Curiously, I also seem to have a lot of readers from Germany, Ukraine and Russia (well, you are one of the ones from Germany). Other than that, my most read posts are the ones with titles which people can come across randomly on Google.

Q: Apart from the blogs your blogroll, are there others – about China or other countries and topics – that you read regularly?

To be honest, not really. I mostly look at those few blogs on China which are on my blogroll (which includes your one). And there is my uncle’s blog, he lives in Israel and blogs about his life there and Israeli topics.

Q: Did family history contribute to your interest in China?

Not really. I don’t have any relatives who have lived or live in China. Having said that, the first time I came to China was with my parents. They are active in the international Esperanto movement, and in 2004 the World Esperanto Congress was in Beijing, so they were going to China to attend it and I went with them. That’s when I first got interested in China. Being able to speak Esperanto helped plug me in to the community of Chinese Esperanto speakers, which has been a nice way to get to know some cool, unusual Chinese people.

Q: Most bloggers will sometimes be surprised by the responses a post of them triggers. Have there been reactions and comments that surprised you during the past seven years?

After visiting Vietnam, I wrote a post on why the Vietnamese dislike China. It got quite a few reactions from Vietnamese readers, most of them proving my original point. One of them actually claimed that Daoism, the I Ching and the idea of Ying/Yang originally came from Vietnam and not from China. Total nonsense as far as I know. Unfortunately unreasonable nationalism is widespread throughout Asia. At its basis lies a wall of mental rigidity and misinformation which is very hard to break through.  Then again, Europe was probably similar up until the Second World War. And Westerners have their own unreasonable prejudices, just look at the persistence of antisemitic tropes among some people, or how so many Europeans will complain that immigrants get more benefits from the state than locals even when it just isn’t true.

Q: It seems that you’ve got most of your Chinese education in the North. Is that so, and do you think it differs from learning Chinese language, ways of interaction, etc., in the South?

You are correct. Although I’ve traveled all over China, I live in Beijing. It’s a stereotype to say that the North is best for learning to speak Mandarin, but actually I think you can learn just as well in most big Southern cities, because nowadays most people speak it there too. I think the Southern Chinese do tend to be a bit more like we imagine the Chinese to be (quiet, indirect, reserved), but in the main I don’t think the cultural difference between Northern and Southern China is that huge. It might not even be as big as the one between Northern and Southern Italy! Whether you live in a small or a big city, and a rich or a poor part of China, probably makes more difference to your experience. But I’ve never lived in Southern China, so I stand to be corrected.

Q: How would you describe your daily life? Is it becoming still more “Chinese”, concerning your choice of food, newspapers, internet sources, or television?

In some ways I am, and in some ways I’m not. I would say that my lifestyle has stopped becoming more Chinese for a while. In fact, after an initial enthusiasm for “going native”, which many foreigners have at first, I think I have found a balance. In a city like Beijing you can find loads of foreign amenities, and it would be silly not to make use of them. On the other hand I wouldn’t want to live in a bubble like some expats do. It really comes down to who you hang out with, and I still hang out with lots of Chinese.

When it comes to food I am pretty Chinese: I like eating Chinese food when it’s properly made, and I even do my best to cook it at home. I have long stopped eating street food or patronizing cheap, hole-in-the-wall type places though, because of concerns about the hygiene and the quality. Many Chinese seem to have come to the same conclusion. Foreigners who pride themselves on being able to eat in such places without minding the consequences are either young foreign-exchange students, or they are pretty dimwitted.

When it comes to media, I still look at Chinese newspapers every now and again to see what they say, but for real news I mostly turn to foreign sources. Of course the language is one issue (it is obviously still much quicker for me to read in English or Italian), but also I think the European media is just superior in terms of giving you a decent picture of what goes on in the world, and, when it comes to sensitive issues, even in China! Same for entertainment: although I sometimes watch Chinese shows and films, in the main I still watch far more foreign ones. I make full use of Chinese internet sites like Baidu or Weibo though.

Q: Do you see changes on Weibo, in terms of real-name requirement, censorship, etc.?

When I got an account in 2011, it still wasn’t necessary to give your ID/passport number. As far as I know now it is, although I have heard you can still get away with giving a false one. In any case, I am sure that if they really want to they can find out who you are.

Q: Generally, when reading your blog, I got an impression overtime that you might think of China as a project, as a country or civilization headed into a rather benign future, compared with Western societies. And on the other hand, your criicism of China, or its political system, sounds pretty much like the general global criticism of it. Is this an accurate impression?

I’m not entirely sure where you got that impression from. I have unquestionably been getting more pessimistic about China, its system and its prospects over the last few years. I think to an extent the current system is geared in such a way that China always gives the impression to outsiders that it’s almost on the cusp of becoming a decent, progressive, modern and confident society, but then it never quite does. I think the political system is good at producing GDP growth, but pretty hopeless at solving the country’s huge social problems. Yes, China has more and more subways and high speed railways, and that’s useful and good for the people, but surely a country like China could do so much better than just that?

I hope China gets better with time, but I don’t think it’s a given that, if you wait 20 or 30 years, it’s all going to be much better. That’s how a lot of Chinese seem to think: just wait a few decades, and everything will solve itself. Unfortunately it’s not that simple.

I think my criticism is also a bit different from that of someone who’s never lived in China, because I am far more aware of aspects like the rise of Chinese nationalism, which many foreign commentators seem blissfully unaware of.

Q: That unawareness seems to be quite a phenomenon. This is what Bruce Anderson (himself not necessarily a human-rights champion) said about Edward Heath, in a BBC radio documentary. Former German chancellor Helmut Schmidt might be another case in point.

Is there something Russia (for example) could learn from China, in terms of soothing external propaganda, or winning influential people over abroad?

Well, Chinese officials certainly are very good at flattering foreign visitors, saying the right things to them, and appearing reasonable and friendly. I don’t have much experience with the Russians, but I doubt they are as good at it. It’s probably not something you can learn either, it’s deep-rooted in the culture.

You have to remember that most Westerners know little about China, and obviously want to be open-minded. The unawareness of the rise of Chinese nationalism probably also lies in the fact that China does tend to leave other countries alone, as long they don’t have any territorial disputes with China of course, and as long as they don’t express any views on what China defines as its “internal affairs”. Of course China’s neighbours are very aware of its nationalistic side, especially the ones which have territorial disputes with it. But people in other parts of the world don’t get to see this side of things. And its not obvious to the casual visitor either.

The European media also focuses too much on the Middle East and almost never talks about Asia’s potentially explosive problems, like the dispute in the South China Sea and the anti-Japanese feeling in China or Korea. The only thing they ever talk about is the issue of Tibet, which has certainly damaged China’s image.

Then again, the real issue is one of projection. Many left-wing Westerners are predisposed to think well of any power which challenges the United States anywhere, regardless of what it really is or does. If you want to believe the best about China (or the worst for that matter), and you don’t live there, it’s easy enough. Right wingers on the other hand may see China’s rise as a vindication of free market economics, or god knows what. Everyone sees what they want to see in China, and no one knows much about it. This has always been the case.

Q: Do you have arguments with Chinese nationalists?

Well, in a sense I do, because I have political arguments with people in China, and most Chinese are nationalists at some level, although the level varies. The level of open-mindedness towards opinions which clash with modern Chinese nationalism, as the schools and media have constructed it, also varies. I know many Mainlanders who are perfectly open minded even about issues like Taiwan, and don’t just toe the line. I think they are a minority however. And by the way, they aren’t necessarily the people with most international exposure. On the other hand if you are talking about dyed-in-the-wool fenqing, rational debate is all but impossible.

Q: You have blogged in English for nearly seven years, and quite recently, you have also started a blog in Italian. What’s next? A blog in Chinese?

My written Chinese is really not good enough to blog in it. I would actually be more likely to start a blog in Esperanto, a language I also speak.

Q: Ji Xiang, thanks a lot for this interview.

The interview was conducted by an exchange of e-mails.



All BoZhu Interviews



9 Comments to “The BoZhu Interviews: If you want to Believe the Best or the Worst about China, it’s easy enough –”

  1. OMG. A really profound interviewee.
    I think I will visit China during my gap year,


  2. No need to take personal emnity and issues into a discussion, KT. Or as they might put it in Harvard:this kind of criticism is intellectually dishonest.


  3. Editor’s note:

    I suggest you continue that debate exactly where it started, KT. If you want to make use of the content of your comment there, I’ve saved it for your convenience and will send it to you on request.

    Greets, JR


  4. OK, here’s where I have to admit that I was a bit of a douchebag to Ji Xiang when I first came across his blog (he was advertising it on ChinaSMACK and I was living in Japan which wasn’t exactly a great time for me), for which I apologise. I think whilst he was a bit noobish when he first arrived in China (we all were I guess, but I didn’t start my blog until I left so happily there’s no record of my period as a China noob!) his blogging has really improved.

    “My mom’s British”

    I think the reason why so many people think Ji Xiang is from the US may have something to do with the US spellings.

    “Curiously, I also seem to have a lot of readers from Germany, Ukraine and Russia”

    Yeah, since the crisis in the Ukraine I’ve seen an uptick in traffic from both the Ukraine and Russia. However the pattern is . . . somewhat weird. According to the Google blogspot stats hundreds of visitors would arrive from Russia within the space of a one-hour slot (and may well have arrived within a much smaller time-window, one hour is the minimum time-unit it measures) and then Russian traffic would subside back to its normal level would happen for the rest of the week. None of this traffic shows up on Statcounter, which is strange because they normally return roughly the same results and suggests its proxy-traffic of some kind.

    At least in my case, I doubt most of this Russian traffic is from regular readers. More likely it has something to do with Putin’s internet army of commenters, though only one post saw a large number of Putin-bot-style comments.

    “I only discovered recently that that was supposed to be the heyday of the “Chinese blogosphere”. Pity I missed it. “

    The first China blog I ever got into was Sinocidal, which was awesome, and which I see MyLaoWai is now re-publishing, although he seems to be selecting the more ranty of the post that were published. Really, though, that only lasted six months before they ran out of steam and fell out amongst themselves.

    The China blogosphere as a whole wasn’t too different: there were some big fallings-out, and people ran out of new things to write about. Another thing was that bloggig as a whole was new, and some people saw it as a way of getting into media, nowadays few think they can use it as a spring-board in this fashion.

    Nowadays you see very few new China blogs being started up, which is a pity – it’s hardly like there’s not still plenty for people to learn about China.


  5. PS – another reason why fewer people blog nowadays is the feeling that they don’t have so much to say about things happening in China compared to the “experts”. I think this is wrong-headed.

    China is a big enough country that it is still possible to be the only foreigner living in a city of tens of thousands of people, or even more than a hundred thousand people. China is still big enough that there are corners of it where massive demonstrations and other events can take place without foreign media ever finding out about it – I myself witnessed demonstrations of more than a thousand people that were never reported anywhere as far as I could ascertain. Hell, as Eric Fish over at Sinostand points out in a recent post, there were even self-immolations at the heart of Beijing that the media only found out about from a tourist’s photos.

    China is certainly big enough that it could stand to be written about more by foreign writers who are not based in Beijing and who are not professional writers.

    Of course, censorship is another factor. There’s no point writing an expat blog that other expats cannot access except via VPN (and they pretty much have to know that your blog exists before they fire up the VPN to find it). Social media also gets credited as reducing the amount of blogging that gets done, but this would be unfortunate if true – 140 characters is no replacement for informed, referenced comment, nor is a long update on Facebook that only your family and friends can read.


  6. Yes, censorship is a likely factor – and it goes beyond technical issues. I believe that depending on Chinese markets leads to a lot of self-censorship, and phony “openness”, towards “Confucius Institutes”, for example.

    Basically, I feel that I have (or had, at the beginning) two choices as a blogger: I’d either focus on personal experience (but that’s difficult when you are rarely in China), or I’d focus on commentary. I’ve arrived at the latter, It seems Ji Xiang has come to similar conclusions.

    P.S.: I think you are a bit too harsh on yourself, re douchebag. The only real douchebag I do remember was Mongol Warrior, and that was long ago.


  7. @FOARP: just out of curiosity, where do I use American spelling? I’m always careful to write “labour” instead of “labor”. But perhaps I’ve been living in China too long.

    Apologies accepted anyway. I was indeed a bit of a noob at the time. And inexperienced at blogging.


  8. @Jixiang – “Mom”.

    @JR – MW didn’t qualify as a douchebag because being a douchebag still allows for some likeable qualities.MW was a psychopath, and the best thing about him is we haven’t heard anything from him in a while so I guess he’s stopped bothering anymore (either that or the cops finally caught up with him – you can always hope so, anyway), unlike that other psychopath who left a bunch of hate-filled messages on my blog, again.


  9. … unlike that other psychopath who left a bunch of hate-filled messages on my blog, again.

    Foarp, I think someone needs to build a castle for that silly spook. Let’s start a fundraising operation.


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