Posts tagged ‘Xi Jinping’

Thursday, October 21, 2021

Xi Jinping’s Heroes (1): the Blood of countless Martyrs

Every once in a while, a topic or text looks too big (or too much of a tasteless nuisance) to me to be processed in a blog, although I still want to translate it. When it’s too much in one go, I might opt for a serial.

This blog is meant to be more than just a public waste book, but it certainly fulfills a waste book’s tasks, too, and helps to tidy up my mind.

The following are excerpts from an article published by “People’s Daily” (the CPC’s central party organ), and republished, probably among many others, by “The Paper” (澎湃新闻), Shanghai.

Note the frequent references to movies – Xi Jinping (or his advisors, or both) appear to have been impressed by Ronald Reagan’s use of cinema, or cinema-worty, propaganda during the 1980s.1)

Main Link: “The Secretary General has talked about Heroes like these”, by Wen Hongyan and Song Jingsi, published on Sept 29
Links within blockquotes added during translation.

0916_blessing

Jiangxi inspection tour 2019, background left:
Red Army Long March Starting Point Monument,
Yudu County

“A nation with hope cannot be without heroes, a country cannot be without pioneers.”
“一个有希望的民族不能没有英雄,一个有前途的国家不能没有先锋。”

Ever since the 18th National Congress, Secretary General Xi Jinping has attached great importance to praising heroic models, carrying forward the heroic spirit, looking for heroes, commemorated the heroes’ footprints north and south of the Yangtse River, told moving stories about heroes on many occasions, expressed his veneration for heroes, called on the whole party and the whole country to hold the heroes in high esteem, to defend them, to learn about them, and to show concern and care for them. The Secretary General emphasized: only high esteem for heroes can bring about heroes, and only the strife to become heroes can make heroes come forth in large numbers.
党的十八大以来,习近平总书记高度重视褒奖英雄模范、弘扬英雄精神,踏寻英雄、缅怀英烈的足迹遍布大江南北,在多个场合讲述英雄感人故事,表达对英雄的崇敬之情,号召全党全国崇尚英雄、捍卫英雄、学习英雄、关爱英雄。总书记强调:“崇尚英雄才会产生英雄,争做英雄才能英雄辈出。”

[…..]

Never to be forgotten
永志不忘——

“The republic is red, and can’t weaken this color. The blood of countless martyrs gave our flag its color. There is no way that we would not build the republic well that they hoped, fought and sacrificed for.”
“共和国是红色的,不能淡化这个颜色。无数的先烈鲜血染红了我们的旗帜,我们不建设好他们所盼望向往、为之奋斗、为之牺牲的共和国,是绝对不行的。”

On the median of Tian An Men Square, the Monument to the People’s Heroes stands tall and towering.
On November 29, 2012, not long after the party’s 18th national congress, Secretary General Xi Jinping entered the National Museum east of the Monument to the People’s Heroes, visiting the “Road to National Rejuvenation” exhibit. The Secretary General pointed out: “During modernity2), the scale to which the Chinese nation has suffered and made sacrifices is something rarely seen in the history of the world.
天安门广场的南北中轴线上,人民英雄纪念碑巍然耸立。
2012年11月29日,党的十八大闭幕不久,习近平总书记走进人民英雄纪念碑东侧的国家博物馆,参观《复兴之路》展览。总书记指出:“近代以后,中华民族遭受的苦难之重、付出的牺牲之大,在世界历史上都是罕见的。”

The October revolution’s momentous events gave China Marxism-Leninism. Marxism-Leninism’s dissemination in China advanced the great awakening of the Chinese people, drove the birth of the Communist Party of China, and ignited the light of the Chinese nation’s rejuvenation.
十月革命一声炮响,给中国送来了马克思列宁主义。马克思列宁主义在中国的传播,促进了中国人民的伟大觉醒,催生了中国共产党,点亮了中华民族的复兴之光。

“China surely has an admirably bright future.” During that grim era, Fang Zhimin and countless other people all had lofty ideals, with their hearts full of hope and expectations.
“中国一定有个可赞美的光明前途。”在那个风雨如晦的年代,方志敏等无数仁人志士都如此满心期待、满怀憧憬。

[…..]

On May 22, 2019, Secretary General Xi Jinping, while ending an inspection tour in Jiangxi, pointed out: “‘The enemy can only chop off our heads, but he can’t shake our faith’ – this was Comrade Fang Zhimin’s resounding promise before sacrificing his life.”
2019年5月22日,习近平总书记在江西考察工作结束时的重要讲话中指出:“‘敌人只能砍下我们的头颅,决不能动摇我们的信仰’,这是方志敏同志牺牲前留下的铮铮誓言。”

“The light of ideals can’t be extinguished, and the light of faith can’t be extinguished.” Secretary General Xi Jinping told many moving stories about the revolutionary martyrs’ selfless pursuit of the light of ideals, and how they gave their lives to protect the revolutionary faith.
“理想之光不灭,信念之光不灭。”习近平总书记曾在不同场合讲述许多革命先烈忘我追寻理想之光、舍身保护信仰火种的感人故事。

“Before martyr Liu Renkan was killed for the righteous cause, the enemy mercilessly cut off his tongue. Still, he used his foot and his spilling blood to write ‘Long live the revolution’.”
“刘仁堪烈士在就义前,敌人残忍地割下了他的舌头,他仍然用脚蘸着流下的鲜血写下‘革命成功万岁’。”

“Martyr Jiang Shanzhong left a letter behind, written with his own blood, ‘Death to the underworld will not turn back water, and protect the Communist Party for thousands of years’.”3)
“江善忠烈士留下血书,‘死到阴间不反水,保护共产党万万年’。”

Xia Minghan went to prison, faithful and unchanging. In a letter to his wife, he sent the heroic oath of ‘persist in our aspirations, vow to spread the truth to the earthly world’.”
“夏明翰身陷牢狱坚贞不屈,在给妻子的家书中发出‘坚持革命继吾志,誓将真理传人寰’的豪迈誓言。”

“In the Battle of Xiangjiang River, martyr Chen Shuxiang‘s feats, ‘heartbreakingly showing his sincere convictions’, touch people, it really is ‘a thousand drops of blood from the Red Army on every inch of the ground, and an honorable hero’s body on every step’.”
“在湘江战役中,陈树湘烈士‘断肠明志’的事迹十分感人,真是‘寸土千滴红军血,一步一尊英雄躯’。”

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Notes

Stuff like this:

1) 1/11/84 Lars‑Erik Nelson suggests another source for the Medal of Honor story: an apocryphal item in the April 1944 issue of Reader’s Digest, a magazine known to be a life‑long Reagan favorite.
“The bomber had been almost ripped apart by German cannon,” it read. “The ball turret gunner was badly wounded and stuck in the blister on the underside of the fuselage. Crewmen worked frantically to extricate the youngster, but there was nothing they could do. They began to jump. The terror‑stricken lad screamed in fear as he saw what was happening. The last man to jump heard the remaining crewman, a gunner, say, ‘Take it easy, kid. We’ll take this ride together.’”
2) Seems this could be translated as after modernity, but that wouldn’t make sense to me because 近代 – among Chinese, and not among Americans or Taiwanese – usually refers to the times from around 1912 and 1949. Among the latter, it would be from the late Ming dynasty to 1912 (according to Wikipedia as of Oct 20).
3) Not necessarily a correct translation; found online, on a site full of commercials and reroutings

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Thursday, September 9, 2021

Ethnic Work, enthusiastic Reactions (3)

As reported by China Central Television’s (CCTV) main evening news on August 29, CPC secretary-general Xi Jinping’s speech on ethnic work at the Central Ethnic Work Conference in late August has met with an enthusiastic echo from the masses and cadres of all national ethnicities. The following are translations of some of that enthusiastic echo. Every quote is linked to the news program’s online video.

This is part 3 of my translation. Part two is there.

Link 1, 07′ 05”, Li Lin, deputy county secretary of nationwide-ethnic-unity-and-progress-model-collective Jiangyong County in Yongzhou City, Hunan Province:

History and practice have amply proven that the key for doing ethnic work well lies with the party. Our next steps will be to continue the promotion of the deployment and implementation of the “twelve musts”, pointed out by General Secretary Xi Jinping. into refined measures. Promoting the rejuvenation of Yaoxiang Village and accelerating the momentum in the realization of common prosperity, we will let the ordinary people live even happier and better lives.
全国民族团结进步模范集体 湖南永州市江永县委副书记李林
历史和实践充分证明做好民族工作关键在党。接下来我们将对习总书记指出的「十二个必须」一细化量化持续推动党中央决策部署落到实处。在推动瑶乡乡村振兴,加快实现共同富裕等方面持续发力,让老百姓过上更加幸福美好的生活。

Link 2, 07′ 29”, Zhang Jianming, Yidi poverty alleviation community village first secretary, Guizhou Province, Wangmo County:

Most people living in our neighborhood are ethnic minority masses [who are part of the] poverty alleviation and relocation [program]. Specifically, we have established volunteer teams for ethnic minorities service teams to develop industries of characteristic ethnic customs, so as to put the masses of relocated people into a position to develop in a stable manner and to continuously improve the masses’ sense of happiness and security.
贵州省望谟县易地扶贫搬迁小区住村第一书记 张建明
我们所在的这个社区居住的大多数是少数民族易地扶贫搬迁群众。我们专门成立少数民族群众志愿服务队,发展民俗特色产业,让广大搬迁群众稳得住能发展,不断提高群众的幸福感和安全感。

Link 3, 07′ 48”, Yun Guosheng, Inner Mongolia “autonomous region” ethnic affairs committee deputy director:

Inner Mongolia autonomous region is the first etnic autonomous region established under the party’s leadership, and it has a glorious tradition of ethnic unity. The next stop will continue to be an example of promoting ethnic unity, walk the new path of high-quality development with a priority for the ecology and green development as points of reference. We will promote the common prosperoous development of all ethnicities.
内蒙古自治区民族事务委员会副主任云国盛
内蒙古自治区是党领导下成立的第一个民族自治区,具有民族团结的光荣传统。下一步我们将继续在促进民族团结方面做好表率,走好以生态优先,绿色发展为导向的高质量发展新路子,努力促进各民族共同繁荣发展。

Tuesday, September 7, 2021

Ethnic Work, enthusiastic Reactions (2)

As reported by China Central Television’s (CCTV) main evening news on August 29, CPC secretary-general Xi Jinping’s speech on ethnic work at the Central Ethnic Work Conference in late August has met with an enthusiastic echo from the masses and cadres of all national ethnicities. The following are translations of some of that enthusiastic echo. Every quote is linked to the news program’s online video.

This is part 2 of my translation. Part one is there.

Link 1, 05′ 14”, Zhao Wulin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Ethnic and Religious Affairs Committee:

Guangxi is the province or region with the most ethnic-minority inhabitants. During the 14th five-year plan we will establish and forge a model region of Chinese national sense of community, refine institutions under which all ethnic minorities live, work, learn and are happy together, promote the high-quality development of the new-era party’s ethnic work.
广西壮族自治区民族宗教事务委员会政策法规处处长赵武林
广西是全国少数民族人口最多的省区,「十四五」期间我们将创建铸牢中华民族共同体意识示范区,完善有利于各民族共居共学共事共乐的体制机制,推动新时代党的民族工作高质量发展。


Link 2, 05′ 32”, Li Xiangsheng, deputy director of Lincang City’s Ethnic and Religious Affairs Committee, Yunnan province:

Here in Lincang, we have quite a number of ethnic minorities, such as the Yi, the Wa, the Dai and the Lahu Nationality. As a next step, we must build a platform for all ethnicities to associate, communicate and blend with each other, tell the story of the Chinese dream being built together by united ethnicities, and promote all ethnicities embracing each other like pomegranate seeds.
云南临沧市民族宗教事务委员会主任李祥生
我们临沧有彝族,佤族,傣族,拉祜族等十几个少数民族。下一步我们要搭建各民族交往,交流,交融的平台,讲好新时代各民族「同心共筑中国梦」的民族团结故事,促进各民族象石榴籽一样紧紧地拥抱在一起。


Link 3, 05′ 54”

Zhu Li, an aid-for-Tibet English teacher at Lhasa Naqu Middle School*):

Secretary-General Xi has emphasized that to forge a national Chinese sense of community means to guide all ethnicities people to solidly establish an idea of community where happiness, sorrow and public wealth as well as life, death, fate and destiny are shared by all. Our school is the main base to forge the Chinese national sense of community, and I am an aid-for-Tibet English teacher. While teaching cultural knowledge, I need to pay great attention to cultivating a correct national concept, historical concept and ethnic concept, internalize the forging of Chinese national sense of community in teaching people, so as to let the flowers of national unity bloom everywhere on the now plateau.
援藏教师拉萨那曲高级中学英语教师朱丽
习总书记强调铸牢中华民族共同体意识就是要引导各族人民牢固树立,休戚与共荣辱与共生死与共命运与共的共同体理念。我学校是铸牢中华民族共同体意识的主陈地,作为一名援藏教师。我在传授文化知识的同时更要注重培养学生正确的国家观,历史观,民族观,把铸牢中华民族共同体意识内化在教书育人里让民族团结之花开遍雪域高原。

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Part 3 is there.
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Note

*) Probably refers to a student age of 15 to 19

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Sunday, September 5, 2021

Ethnic Work, enthusiastic Reactions (1)

As reported by China Central Television’s (CCTV) main evening news on August 29, CPC secretary-general Xi Jinping’s speech on ethnic work at the Central Ethnic Work Conference in late August has met with an enthusiastic echo from the masses and cadres of all national ethnicities. The following are translations of some of that enthusiastic echo. Every quote is linked to the news program’s online video.


Link 1, 03′ 28”, Wang Yanzhong (王延中), head of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences’ Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology:

Secretary General’s important speech is a concentrated and innovative, summarized and purified expression of our ethnic work in the new era. Even more so, we continue to promote the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. It is especially the promotion of new strategic deployment in the building of ethnic affairs management systems and management abilities.
中国社科院民族学与人类学研究所所长王延中:
总书记的重要讲话是我们新时代民族工作在实践中创新,总结,提炼的一个集中表达,更是我们继续推进新时代中国特色社会主义现代化建设。尤其是在民族工作领域推进民族事务治理体系和治理能力建设的新的战略部署。



Link 2, 03′ 50”, Zhang Mou (张谋), head of the National Affairs Commission’s research department:

We will thoroughly study Xi Jinping’s thoughts concerning the strengthening and improvement of ethnic work, profoundly grasp the work rules shown in the “twelve musts”, firmly seize the distinct central theme of a sense of community among China’s ethnicities, and promote the new era party’s high-quality development of ethnic work.
我们将深入学习总书记关于加强和改进民族工作的重要思想,深刻领会「十二个必须」所揭示的工作规律,牢牢把握铸牢中华民族共同体意识这条鲜明主线,推动新时代党的民族工作高质量发展。



Link 3, 04′ 10”, Maulati Yibulayin [phonetic spelling], a vice director of Xinjiang Uighur “autonomous region’s” Ethnic Affairs Commission:

As ethnic workers, we must profoundly understand the spirit of the Secretary-General’s important speech, and, with the forging of a sense of community among China’s ethnicities as the central theme, guide the continuous improvement of the ethnicities’ recognition of the great motherland, the great Chinese nation, Chinese culture, the Communist Party of China and socialism with Chinese characteristics.
新疆维吾尔自治区民族事务委员会副主任地力毛拉提‧依布拉音
作为民族工作者,我们要深刻领会总书记的重要讲话精神,以铸牢中华民族共同体意识为主线引导各族群众不断增强,对伟大祖国,中华民族,中华文化,中国共产党,中国特色社会主义的认同。

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Part 2 is there.
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Thursday, August 12, 2021

Xi Jinping’s Reply Letter to “Global Young Leaders Dialogue”

An organization named “Global Young Leaders Dialogue” has made it into the number-one headline1) of China People’s Broadcasting Station‘s morning news on Thursday.2) The “Global Young Leaders Dialogue” is, by self-description, a “unique communication, education, and professional development platform for young achievers under the age of 45 with diverse regional, cultural, disciplinary, sectorial, and professional backgrounds across the globe”, “jointly initiated by the Center for China and Globalization (CCG) and the Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies (ACCWS)”.

The “Center for China and Globalization”, in turn, is a “think tank” devoted to the development of “a new narrative system” in track-II diplomacy (possibly not exactly the same, but similar to, “people-to-people diplomacy”.

The project appears to have formed a “partner” organization in Europe, too, the “Europe-Asia Center”, whose colors come across as somewhat EU-China-centered:

"Europe Asia Center" logo

“Europe Asia Center” logo

Fittingly, former President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy sent them a “congratulatory letter”, too, dated August 5.

The project is probably some kind of “must-have”, not only among “people-to-people diplomacy” advocates, but in the view of the party leadership, too: cooptation stuff like this forms part of the imperial regalia. After all, the World Economic Forum runs a “Young Global  Leaders” project, too. German Green Party chancellor candidate, Annalena Baerbock, is among them.

But back to the Chinese copy of it.

The following is a translation from a letter reportedly sent by Xi Jinping, to the “Global Young Leaders Dialogue”.

Reply letter
回信

Delegates of the “Global Young Leaders’ Dialogue Project”:
“国际青年领袖对话”项目外籍青年代表:

Hello! I have received your letter. You all study, work, and live in China, and I am very glad that you now have the opportunity to deepen your knowledge and understanding of China through thorough travels and visits.
你们好!来信收悉。你们都在中国学习、工作、生活,这次有机会到各地深入走访,加深了对中国的认识和了解,我感到很高兴。

Just as you wrote in your letter, the Chinese people rely on their own wisdom and sweat to build a fertile and beautiful homeland on the earth of China, to create a civilization of many forms and colors, and to achieve the life of modest prosperity it has long yearned for. Happiness demands struggle. The most important thing is to be based on the national condition and to take one’s own road. Practice shows that the new Chinese-style road of modernization becomes ever broader and will help to develop better ourselves and thus benefit the world.
正如你们在来信中谈到的,中国人民依靠自己的智慧和汗水,在中华大地上建设富饶美丽的家园,创造多姿多彩的文化,实现了梦寐以求的小康生活。要幸福就要奋斗。中国幅员辽阔、人口众多,要想发展振兴,最重要的就是立足国情、走自己的路。实践表明,中国式现代化新道路越走越宽广,将更好发展自身、造福世界。

Youth is always accompanied by dreams. The Communist Party of China has passed the 100-years’ milestone, but our original intentions have only grown stronger as time has passed. After 100 years, you are just in your prime time. On our new journey, we will continue to make the Chinese dream of great rejuvenation happen in an indefatigable struggle, and indefatigably struggle to promote the progress of mankind’s development. We welcome more international young people to come to China for exchange, and hopefully, Chinese and foreign young people, as they learn from each other and set examples for each other, will improve understanding, earn friendship, grow together, and devote youthful power to contribute to the building of a community of common destiny for mankind.3)
青春总是同梦想相伴。中国共产党走过了百年奋斗历程,但我们的初心和梦想历久弥坚。百年恰是风华正茂。在新征程上,我们将继续为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而不懈奋斗,为促进人类发展进步而不懈奋斗。我们欢迎更多国际青年来华交流,希望中外青年在互学互鉴中增进了解、收获友谊、共同成长,为推动构建人类命运共同体贡献青春力量。

I wish you all the best in China!
祝愿你们在华一切顺利!

CPC Secretary General and State Chairman Xi Jinping, August 10, 2021 / Xinhua, August 11
中共中央总书记 国家主席 习近平 2021年8月10日 (新华社北京8月11日电)

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Notes

1) That’s no reason for the “young leaders” to get too exhilarated though. If Xi Jinping had opened a parrot-breeding station the day before, it might have been the number-one headline, too. In national news, it doesn’t matter what is done, but by who it is done.
2) CPBS, August 11, 2021, 22:30 UTC
3) More literally translated: a community of common destiny for mankind.
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Related

Center for China and Globalization’s New Narrative System, July 19, 2021
Enhancing Zhou Enlai’s Convivial Diplomacy, Febr 20, 2012 (re Oct 9, 2009)
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Updates / Related

Xi Jinping schrieb zurück, CRI, Aug 11, 2021
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Sunday, June 6, 2021

Great Matters of the State, Educational Tour

nanhu_red_boat

CCTV Xinwen Lianbo, June 5, 2021

The following is a newsitem from Xinwen Lianbo (CCTV evening news) on June 5. The term 国之大者 (guózhī dàzhě), coined in recent contexts by party secretary general Xi Jinping, appears to have led to some confusion, without anyone within the propaganda department or any CPC interface with the public to clarify the meaning.

The non-communist public figures, commonly referred to dangwai in Chinese politics, appear to be facing higher expectations to be faithful agents of the Communist Party of China in the pursuit of state affairs, or intensified worshippers of the CPC as it  commermorates its 100th founding anniversary.
The Upenn language blog has done some heroic explanatory work for the term guózhī dàzhě, and as I can’t find anything more convincing online, I’ve decided to translate it as great matters of the state.
Links within blockquotes added during translation.

Celebrating the 100th founding anniversary of the Communist Party of China, officials of all non-communist parties’ central committee members and public figures and representatives with no party affiliations went to Shanghai and to Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, for visits and studies.

[视频]庆祝中国共产党成立100周年 各民主党派中央负责人和无党派人士代表赴上海 浙江嘉兴参观学习
来源:央视网2021年06月05日 19:18

CCTV online news (Xinwen Lianbo): with permission from the Communist Party of China’s central committee, the Central United Front organized a trip by members of all non-communist parties’ central committee officials and public figures and representatives with no party affiliations to Shanghai and Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, so as to admire the site of the Communist Party of China’s first congress, and the Nanhu Red Boat. A symposium was also held.

央视网消息(新闻联播):经中共中央批准,中央统战部组织各民主党派中央负责人和无党派人士代表今天(6月5日)赴上海、浙江嘉兴,瞻仰中共一大会址和嘉兴南湖红船,并举行座谈会。

The one-hundred years of struggle have amply demonstrated that without the Communist Party there would be no New China, that without the Communist Party there would be no socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Chinese people wouldn’t have stood up, wouldn’t have prospered, wouldn’t have become stronger. It is hoped that non-communist democratic party public figure will always cherish “great matters of the state”, thoroughly study and implement Xi Jinping’s ideology of New Era socialism with Chinese characteristics, firmly develop party history education, always faithfully maintain the leadership of the Communist Party of China, keep to the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics, strengthen the joining of forces of party construction, and unite in the common effort of promoting the development of multi-party cooperation, so as to create a beautiful future for the Chinese people and the Chinese nation.

中国共产党百年奋斗历程充分表明,没有共产党就没有新中国,没有共产党就没有中国特色社会主义,中国人民就不可能站起来、富起来、强起来。希望各民主党派、无党派人士始终胸怀“国之大者”,深入学习贯彻习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,扎实开展中共党史学习教育,始终不渝坚持中国共产党的领导,走中国特色社会主义道路,加强中国特色社会主义参政党建设,协力推进多党合作事业发展,共同创造中国人民和中华民族的美好未来。

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Related

Political parties in China, Wiki, last edited June 6

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Sunday, June 6, 2021

External Propaganda: Cai Mingzhao’s then, Xi Jinping’s now?

30th_politburo_study_session

Politburo’s 30th study session, Xinwen Lianbo, June 1, 2021

English-speaking Chinese media translate 传播 (chuánbō) as “communication” – as in this English-language rendition of a Xi speech on May 31, to the “30th collective study session of the CPC politburo. I don’t quite trust the translation, because there is a Chinese habit of making Chinese terms more palatable to a foreign audience by using not-quite-the-closest possible translation.

As a shortwave user, the most familiar translation to me would be propagation, which may stand for a process of information flow, “transmissions of impulses (or triggers) to influence the behavior of others” (传播就是某个人传递刺激以影响另一些人行为的过程), or “social information flows and the information of social information systems” (郭庆光定义传播是社会資訊的流动和社会資訊系统的运行). All that, and more, plus propaganda, I suppose.

So, the official Chinese translation for chuánbō would be communication. But China Copyright and Media, in an October 2013 translation of an article by Cai Mingzhao, director of the State Council Information Office’s Foreign Propaganda Office at the time, referred to chuánbō as dissemination. It’s a translation that leaves room for a lot of interpretation.

What strikes me when reading the China Copyright and Media translation of nearly eight years ago is its similarity with Xi’s speech of May 31. Back then, Cai Mingzhao, the State Council of Information Office’s external propaganda bureau at the time, discussed the future priorities in public diplomacy work in the light of Xi Jinping’s recent speech at the National Propaganda and Ideology Work Conference.

While Xi’s national propaganda conference speech in August 2013 had contained some referals to external propaganda, too, most of it had been about propaganda in general, and ideological work within China. In fact, I’m under the impression that in his May 31 speech, which focused exclusively on external propaganda, Xi borrowed heavily from Cai Mingzhao’s 2013 article.

You can contrast these two English renditions: one by China Daily on June 2, i. e. four days ago, reflecting Xi’s speech, and one by China Copyright and Media, in October 2013, translating Cai Mingzhao’s article.

Sunday, May 23, 2021

Long Yongtu’s WTO Accession Commemorative Lecture (1)

Long Yongtu (龙永图), born in Hunan Province in 1943, is a former Vice Minister of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation and was China’s Chief Negotiator for his country’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Long was also an enthusiastic participant in public debate on domestic issues during the first decade of the new century.

The following is part one of my translation of a lecture “recently” given by Long at a seminar in Beijing.

Main link: Since you are all market economies, can you remove “socialism”? – Absolutely not (既然都是市场经济了,能不能去掉社会主义?“绝对不可能”)

As we discuss the 20th anniversary of China’s accession to the WTO this year, we should put it into the context of this years biggest thing this year, the 100th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party’s establishment. The activities of commemorating the 20th anniversary of WTO accession should be a part of learning the party’s 100 years of history. Only in this fashion will our commemorative activities have clear-cut representative meaning and add to its value and importance.

今年我们谈中国入世20周年,应该把它放在今年最大的一件事情——中国共产党建党100周年——背景之下,把纪念入世20周年的活动,作为我们学习党的100年历史的一个组成部分。只有这样才能使我们的纪念活动具有鲜明的时代意义和时代特色,也赋予它更大的价值和重要性。

This isn’t far-fetched, but rather,the histories of our country’s establishment, of reform and opening up are all part of the party’s history. By putting the commemoration of WTO accession 20 years ago into this big context makes it more significant, and it is very relevant in this context.

这样说不是要牵强附会,而是因为我们的建国史、改革开放史,都是百年党史很重要的部分,我们把纪念入世20周年放在这样一个大的背景下更有意义,也是非常相关的。

I think this history can be divided into two areas. One is the fifteen years of accession negotiations from 1986 to 2001. Why didn’t we enter WTO when we recovered our legitimate United Nations’ seat? That was because at the time, our thinking wasn’t sufficiently intellectually liberated. At the time, it was believed that that was a rich countries’ club, without any advantages for us. In fact, according to GATT regulations, we simply could have written an application and we could have joined, without any need for negotiations, because China had been a founding member. Because of restoring its legitimate UN membership, our re-entry into GATT would have been a matter of course. But at the time, we just felt that GATT was a rich countries’ club, and joining wouldn’t have been of any use. It was all dominated by Western countries, so we decided not to join.

关于这段历史,我觉得可以分为两部分:一部分是1986年到2001年中国复关和入世的15年谈判。为什么当年恢复联合国合法席位后,我们没有进入WTO?因为当时思想不够解放,认为那是一个富国俱乐部,对我们也没什么好处。实际上当时根据《关贸总协定》的规定,我们完全可以写一张申请就进去的,那个时候根本不需要谈判,因为我们中国是创始成员,既然恢复了联合国的合法席位,我们复关也是理所当然的。但是当时就觉得关贸是富国俱乐部,我们进去也没有什么用,都是西方国家主导的,就决定不去了。

Later, it took us until 1986 to apply. Why was that? Because after the beginning of reform and opening in 1978, we saw our country’s foreign trade continuously expand, with the need to be granted quotas, especially because at the time, GATT sill had the “Agreement on Textile and Clothing“, and the “Multi Fibre Arrangement“. Because of the need to apply for quotas for textile exports under the “multi-fibre arrangement” framework, it was decided to apply for re-entry into the GATT. So I think that the history from 1986 to 2001 is also something everyone can study.

后来一直到1986年才提出申请,为什么?因为1978年开始改革开放以后,慢慢觉得我们中国的对外贸易在不断扩大,特别是当时《关贸总协定》还有《纺织品协定》《多种纤维协定》要发放配额。当时为了我们中国的纺织品贸易特别是纺织品出口能够借助多边的《多种纤维协定》框架取得配额,决定开始复关了。所以从1986年开始到2001年,我觉得这一段历史,也是大家可以研究的一段历史。

The second area is the twenty years from entering the WTO in 2001, to 2021. How have we fulfilled our promise to the WTO? How has entering the WTO accelerated China’s reform and opening, how has it enhanced its hard power and soft power? This historical period also needs to be well researched.

第二部分是2001年到2021年中国入世这20年。这20年我们是怎么履行对世贸组织的承诺?是怎么样通过入世这件事加快中国的改革开放,提升了中国的硬实力和软实力?这一段历史也是需要好好研究的。

Therefore, the first point of view under such a special historical background this year, is that by regarding the WTO entry of twenty years ago as part of our studies and research of the party’s 100-years history, we stand on a high ground – not just discussing trade or doing research on an academic level. We look at this matter from a perspective of the entire party and the entire country. As part of China’s reform and opening, thereby moving forward promoting China’s reform and opening, this is significant.

所以我的第一个观点,在今年这样一个特定的历史背景之下,我们把纪念中国入世20周年,看成是我们学习和研究党的100年历史的组成部分,这样站位就高了,我们的讨论就不仅仅是在经贸领域,更不是在学术领域这样一个层面上进行研究,而是从全党、全国的角度来看这件事情。它作为中国改革开放史的一部分,从而进一步推动中国的改革开放,这样就有意义了。

The second [point of view] in my view, when learning the history of China’s WTO membership is to comply with Secretary Xi Jinping’s “Sixteen Characters Policy”. This “Sixteen Characters Policy” is connected with studying the entire party’s history, because we make our studies of 20 years of WTO membership a part of studying the party’s history. Of course, the “Sixteen Characters Policy” also suitably guides our 20-years-WTO activity.

第二,对中国入世20年的历史学习,我觉得要遵循习近平总书记提出来的“16字方针”。这“16字方针”是针对整个党史学习,既然我们把入世20周年作为党史学习的一部分,当然这“16字方针”也适合指导我们入世20周年的纪念活动。

The General Secretary’s “Sixteen Characters Policy’s” first article is to study historical fact.1) Studying history can help to understand some principles. From China’s 15 years of WTO accession negotiations and its 20-year membership, which principles are there, which experiences can we summarize and use as reference?

总书记提出的“16字方针”,第一条是学史明理,学习历史能明白一些道理,中国入世谈判15周年、入世20周年,我们有哪些道理、哪些经验可以总结、可以借鉴?

The second article is to enhance faith by studying history – studying history can strengthen our confidence, our continuous promotion of reform and opening, the deepening of reform, and it can expand confidence in opening up.

第二条是学史增信,学习历史可以增强我们的信心,增强我们进一步推动改革开放,深化改革、扩大开放的信心。

The third article is the virtue of studying history. Within the process of the entire history, which spirits are there that can be used? At the time, many comrades actually showed a great sense of responsibility when they completed those [WTO] negotiations.

第三条是学史崇德,我们在整个历史进程当中,有哪些精神是可以发扬的?当时很多同志确实表现了很多的担当精神,来完成这一场谈判。

The third article is to let the studies of history be followed by action which means that the reader must act. To research the WTO’s prospects and China’s role int it actually means to draw from China’s 20 years of membership to promote the solution of the issues that currently need to be solved. We still resolutely support the multilateral trade system represented by WTO and acknowledge the WTO as the core of the entire multilateral trade system. Therefore, the prospect of WTO reform is extremely important, as an important part of China’s participation in global governance.

第四条是学史力行,就是要见诸行动了,今天研究世贸组织前景与中国角色,实际上就是借助中国入世20周年这样一个契机来采取一些行动,推动当前必须解决的问题。我们还是坚决支持以WTO为代表的多边贸易体系,承认WTO是整个多边贸易体系的核心。所以WTO的改革前景就非常重要了,是中国参与全球治理的重要组成部分。这其中,中国发挥什么样的作用,在这里都可以好好地研究。

The third [point of view] is that when we study China’s 20 years of WTO membership, we must know clearly what major problems has WTO entry solved for China? In my view, China’s entry into the WTO has brought China’s reform and opening two major breakthroughs:

第三,我们学习中国加入世贸20年历史的成果,要搞清楚中国入世解决了什么重大问题?我觉得中国入世对于中国改革开放来讲,有两个重大的突破:

The first major breakthrough was that by joining the WTO, we made a promise to the world to practice market economy, which is a major historic turning point in China’s reform and opening, because before 1992, market economy was a restricted area, something you couldn’t discuss because market economy simply was capitalism. But by joining the WTO, we promised to practice market economy.

第一个重大突破是我们通过加入世界贸易组织向全世界承诺我们搞市场经济,这是中国改革开放当中一个重大的历史转折,因为1992年以前市场经济是一个禁区,那是不能谈的,市场经济就是资本主义。但是我们通过入世承诺了搞市场经济。

The second major breakthrough was that, by joining the World Trade Organization, we promised, as a developing country opening its market to the world, relatively big market openings, thus accelerating China’s opening towards the outside world. So, these two breakthroughs are actually two major achievements of China joining WTO, and also crucial points with a certain status.

第二个重大突破是我们通过加入世贸组织,承诺了以发展中国家身份向全球开放市场,在很多领域里做了比较大的市场开放,从而大大促进了中国的对外开放。所以这两个突破实际上是中国入世谈判的重大成果,也是入世在中国改革开放史上具有一定地位的两个关键。

For example, at the beginning, we did not promise a market economy, but came under constant pressure to do so. At the time, this was hard for the participants, taking the measure of saying that while we didn’t recognize market economy, we could still agree to refer to a commodity economy, or a planned market economy, and we could still implement that market-economy rules system of theirs.

比如说市场经济,开始我们是不承认的,后来在谈判当中一直逼着我们要承诺搞市场经济,当时参加谈判的人很痛苦,变着法地想讲我们虽然不承认市场经济,叫商品经济也好,叫有计划的市场经济也好,但是我们能够执行你们那一套以市场经济规则体系为基础的市场经济。

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Notes

1) Not sure how Long arrives at this interpretation – the 16 characters’ first line goes 科学立法 巩固法治根基 – scientifically legislate and solidify the foundations of rule by law.
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Related

Rare public criticism, SCMP, Nov 18, 2018
Milton Friedman’s Misadventures, The American Scholar, Dec 5, 2016
Long and the Smiling Curve, May 17, 2012

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