Search Results for ““Culture Document””

Sunday, February 12, 2012

17th Central Committee’s “Culture Document” – 11: Go Global, and no Porn!

« Previous leg of this translation: part 10, Linking the Cultural Industries to the National Economy

The following is a translation of the fifth chapter of the CCP Central Committee’s “cultural document”. For more background concerning the document, see that previous post.

Main Link:

7) Deepen Reform and Opening Further, Accelerate and Establish Systems which are Conducive to the Prosperous Development of Culture


Culture guides the mood of our times, and is the area most in need of innovation. We must firmly grasp the correct direction, accelerate the promotion of cultural mechanisms, built sound leadership by party committees, administrative management, industrial self-regulation, social supervision, enterprises, institutions and units (danwei) which operate in accordance with the law, based on cultural management systems and vigorous cultural production systems, bring positive market factors in to play in the process of cultural resource allocation, make culture get past [old] patterns, and add strong dynamic force to prosperous cultural development.


a) Deepen reform of state-owned cultural units. By focusing on establishing a system of modern enterprise, accelerate and promote the reform of operational cultural units, and foster mainframes in conformity with the market. Specify the cultural units’ characters and functions scientifically, distinguish between them, classify them, take a progressive approach, open them gradually, promote normal state-owned cultural ensembles and troupes, press products which are not about current affairs or politics, [ownership transformation of news websites (?) – 新闻网站转企改制], expand the fruits of publication, distribution, and the film industry’s reform, accelerate their transformation into companies and public limited companies, perfect corporate governance structures in line with modern enterprise system requirements, and reflecting the cultural enterprises’ characteristic assets and operations and management organization. Innovate the investment and financial systems, support state-owned cultural companies’ as they face the capital markets, and support them in attracting social capital, and in carrying out joint-stock transformation. Keep the attributes of public benefit in mind, strengthen the service functions, increase vital development, comprehensively promote cultural units’ human resources and income allocation, social insurance systems’ reform, clear service specifications and the strengthening of performance evaluation in mind. Innovate public cultural service facilities’ operational mechanisms, attract personalities who represent society, professionals, and apply grassroots participation and management. Promote the progressive perfection of party publications’, radio, and television management and operational mechanisms. Promote the application of entrepreneurial management at the units, such as normal current-affairs publishing houses, non-profit publishing houses, ensembles and troupes who represent national characteristics and the country’s artistic level, enhance exposure to the markets, and the ability to serve the masses.


b) A sound, modern culture market system. To promote cultural products and key elements floating reasonably all over the country, an orderly, modern market system for unified and open competition must be built. The focus must be on the development of books and other publications, digital audio and video products, performing arts and entertainment, television series, cartoons, animation, and [computer] games, and similar markets, for the further perfection of a comprehensive international Chinese platform on fairs and exhibitions, etc. Develop chain operation, commodity circulation and distribution, e-commerce and other modern organizations and forms, accelerate the building of large-scale distribution enterprises and logistical bases for cultural products, build distributional networks for cultural products that understand urban and rural needs, with the big cities as the centers, with small- and medium-sized cities complementing them. Accelerate the development of property rights [or ownership rights], copyright, and key markets like those for technology and information, carefully manage major exchange [markets] for cultural property rights, norms, and transactions of cultural assets and artistic works. Strengthen the trade’s organizational building, and build sound intermediary structures.


c) Innovate the cultural management system. Deepen reform of administrative and management systems, accelerate the transformation of government functions, strengthen the functions of policy adjustment, market supervision, social management, and public service, promote the separation of politics and enterprise, separation of politics and business, and provide a reasonable order to the relationship between government and cultural enterprises and units, through control and adjustment. Perfect personnel management, operational management, asset management and lead it into the direction of a combined management system of state-owned cultural assets [or – not sure about the correct translation here – a state-owned management system]. Build a sound and comprehensive administrative and law-enforcement structure for the culture market, and promote a sub-provincial and sub-city administration and responsibility mainstay. Accelerate cultural legislation, define and perfect the laws and regulations concerning the protection of public cultural services, the rejuvenation of the cultural industries, cultural market management, and increase the legal level of cultural construction. Adhere to the management and organizational system, implement principles of who is responsible, and who is in charge, strictly apply policies of cultural capital, cultural enterprise, access and non-access to the cultural product markets, comprehensively apply legal, administrative, economic and technological means to increase management efficiency. Deepen the implementation of “Brush pornography away, and crack down on illegal publications”, perfect cultural market management, firmly remove decadent cultural garbage which poisons the peoples’ minds, conscientiously build a market order which ensures national cultural safety.


d) Perfect security system policies policy guarantee mechanisms. Ensure that growth in public financing of cultural construction exceeds normal growth in public finance revenues, increase the share of cultural expenses in public spending. Expand the range of public financing, perfect financial input methods, strengthen fund management, increase the efficiency of funding used, and ensure cultural service systems’ construction and operation. Implement and improve cultural economic policies, support societal organizations, organizations, donations to and start-ups of non-profit cultural activities, guide non-profit organizations to provide public cultural products and services. [] Establish a national cultural development fund, expand the scale of related cultural funds and special funds, increase the share of all kinds of lottery-generated means for the funding of non-profit undertakings. Continue the use of coherent policies on the reform of the cultural system, and support the transformation of state-owned cultural units for another five years.


e) Promote the Chinese culture’s process of going global. Carry out foreign cultural exchange on multiple channels, in multiple forms, and on multiple levels, broaden participation in the global dialog of civilizations, promote learning from each other, strengthen the inspiration that comes from Chinese culture, and Chinese culture’s influence, for the joint safeguarding of cultural diversity. Innovate ways and means of propaganda abroad, strengthen [the right to speak ones opinion – or the right to dominate others through words: 增强国际话语权], react appropriately to foreign concerns, enhance the international community’s basic understanding of our country, its values, its path of development, understanding for and knowledge of its domestic and foreign policies, and let them discover the our country’s civilizational, democratic, open, and progressive image. Implement the project of our culture going global, improve and support the policies and implementation of cultural products and services going global, support major media organizations in setting up overseas branches, foster a number of external cultural enterprises and intermediary organizations which are globally competitive, improve dubbing, recommendation and introduction, advisory and similar support mechanisms, and gain access to international cultural markets. Strengthen Chinese overseas cultural centers and Confucius Institutes, encourage academia and artistic organization which reflect our country’s level to play a constructive role within relevant international organizations, and organize the translation of outstanding artistic works and cultural quality products. Build mechanisms for cultural exchange, combine governmental exchanges and non-governmental exchanges, bring into play the role of non-governmental cultural enterprise, cultural non-profit organizations in international cultural exchanges, and support overseas Chinese in actively launching sino-foreign cultural exchanges. Establish cultural exchange mechanisms for young foreigners, and establish an award for contributions to the international dissemination of Chinese culture.


f) Actively absorb and learn from outstanding foreign cultural achievements. Adhere to the principles of self-dependance, self-regardness, to learning from every experience that helps to strengthen the building of our country’s socialist construction, from all positive achievements that can enrich our people’s cultural life, from everything that is conducive to our country’s cultural activities, and to its cultural management concepts and mechanisms. Strengthen our country’s intellectual fields, its talents, and its acquisition of technology. Attract foreign investment into fields and enterprises that are designed for this by rules and regulations, and guarantee the investors’ lawful rights and interests.Encourage cultural units to enter cooperation projects with powerful foreign cultural institutions, learn from advanced production technolgies, and from advanced management experience. Encourage foreign-invested enterprises to carry out cultural-technological research and development, and develop outsourcing. Develop international cooperation in the protection of intellectual property rights.


To be continued.

Saturday, February 11, 2012

17th Central Committee’s “Culture Document” – 11: Go Global, and no Porn!

[This was posted on Sunday, but appears as a Saturday post. This mess, and that mess, are somehow linked to each other, mefeels – JR]

Saturday, January 14, 2012

17th Central Committee’s “Culture Document” – 10: Linking the Cultural Industries to the National Economy

This post’s translation starts with the “Culture Document’s” sixth chapter. My previous post, translating the 5th chapter, is here, and for an explanation about the document, click here.

This translation leg’s main link:

6) Accelerating the Culture Industry’s Development, Promote Cultural Industries to Become a Mainstay of the National Economy


The development of the culture industry is an important gateway to meet the variety of the people’s variety of spiritual and cultural demands. The forward direction of advanced socialist culture must be adhered to, social efficiency1) be put first, social and economic efficiency work hand in hand (相统一), sustainable demands be upheld in accordance with comprehensive coordination, development of a straddling kind be promoted and be turned into a new point of economic growth, into a major point in the strategic adjustment of economic structure, to be included into the efforts that need to be exerted on a transformative way of economic development, and on the support for a promotion of scientific development.

发展文化产业是社会主义市场经济条件下满足人民多样化精神文化需求的重要途径。必须坚持社会主义先进文化前进方 向,坚持把社会效益放在首位、社会效益和经济效益相统一,按照全面协调可持续的要求,推动文化产业跨越式发展,使之成为新的经济增长点、经济结构战略性调 整的重要支点、转变经济发展方式的重要着力点,为推动科学发展提供重要支撑。

a) Building a modern cultural industry system. To develop the cultural industries, the building of a modern cultural industrial system is needed, one that is reasonably structured, including all possible categories, high-quality scientific content rich in originality, and of competitive strength. Some big projects must be carried out in key areas, adjustment of cultural industries be carried forward, publishing, film, printing, advertising, performing arts, entertainment, exposition, and other traditional cultural industries as well as cultural creativity, digital publishing, mobile multi-media, animation games and other emerging cultural industries be developed and strengthened. Encourage powerful cultural enterprises to be active across regions, across industries, and across systems and organizations, and cultivate strategic investors in the fields of cultural industries. Optimize the distribution of cultural industries, bring into play the respective strengths of the eastern, central and western regions [of China], strengthen the planning and building of cultural bases, develop clusters of cultural industries, increase the cultural industries’ economies of scale, intensification, and specializational levels. Increase intellectual property rights, unfold the nation’s cultural splendor as a supporting force in [cultural?] production, and create famous brands. Discover the urban cultural resources, develop characteristic cultural industries, and build cities with distinguishing features. Bring the national capital’s role as the model of a  cultural center into play. Design and build [industrial] parks with distinctive original cultural industries, support the development of small and medium-sized cultural enterprises. Promote cultural industries and tourism, sports, information, logistics, construction and other industries’ combined development, increase the cultural content of related industries, extend the cultural industrial chain, increase the added value.


b) Shape a pattern of cultural industries with various forms of ownerships, with public ownership as the main pattern. To accelerate the development of cultural industries, unswerving support for and strengthening of state-owned cultural enterprises or enterprises with the state as the controlling shareholder is essential, and non-publicly owned cultural enterprises’ healthy development must be unswervingly encouraged and guided. A core of highly competitive state-owned enterprises or enterprises or conglomerates must be cultivated, and play a leading role in the development of a prosperous market. To the extent permitted by the state, the guidance of investment of different forms into industrial enterprises, participation in the transformation of state-run businesses into [private] enterprises, participation in the implementation of big cultural industry projects and the building of industrial parks, investment approvement, loans, landuse rights, preferential taxation, market entry and mergers, bond issuance, foreign-trade and special funds etc. should be supported, fair market competition and equal protection by the law in a legal environment be provided. Strengthen the services and management of non-public companies, and guide them to perform their social responsibilities on their own initiative.


c) Promote cultural scientific innovation. Scientific innovation is an important driver of cultural development. Play a facilitating role between culture and technology, deepen and implement the technology-driven strategy, and increase independent innovative abilities. Firmly hold a number of comprehensive, strategic major technological tasks, strengthen core technologies, key technologies, and similar technologies to tackle key problems, sustain cultural equipment, software, systematic research and independent development with advanced technology, attach importance to the definition to relevant standards and utilization of innovation results, improve our country’s publishing, printing, mass media, film, performing arts, internet, animation etc. technological levels, and strengthen the cultural industries’ core competitiveness. Build major cultural-technology projects into related national technological development plans and programs, basing them on national high-technology parks, on national experience in the areas of sustainable development etc., and on the building of combined cultural and technological model bases. Build a culturally and technologically innovative system with enterprises as the main structures, markets as the main guide, and research. Foster the building of a number of cultural and technological companies with distinctive features and strong innovative capabilities, and support strategic research alliances and common service platforms.


d) Expand cultural consumption2). To increase the total quantity of cultural consumption and to increase the level of cultural consumption spells the cultural industry development’s innate power. Commercial patterns must be innovated, the masses’ cultural markets be expanded, characteristic ways of culture consumption be developed, the scope of cultural services be broadened, individualized, demassified cultural products and services be provided, and new points of cultural consumption be cultivated. The level of culture consumption at the grassroots must be increased, entrepreneurial investment be guided into the building of more places of culture consumption which meet the demands of the masses, the publication of books and press products in line with the masses’ purchasing power be encouraged, amd certain quantities of low-price tickets for commercial performing arts and movies be arranged. Cultural operators on the internet must be encouraged to provide more low-cost services, and locations where such conditions apply must provide adequate subsidies to the poor, and to migrant workers. Tourism must be actively promoted, immaterial cultural heritage and tourism be linked to each other, and tourism be brought into play as a promoting factor in culture consumption.




1) Social efficiency is frequently mentioned in educational contexts, outside the context of this document, and internationally. I’m not sure if this is the kind of social efficiency the document’s 社会效益 or shèhuì xiàoyì actually refers to. John Dewey and Chinese thinkers (and doers) probably influenced each other to some extent, especially in the 1920s.

I’ve come across Dewey’s “Democracy and Education” (New York, 1930) online, and I would actually like to read that book, but that would take me too far from my translation task, and my current focus on the CCP’s cultural policies and public diplomacy. A critical engagement with Dewey’s Democracy and Education (“John Dewey and our Educational Prospect”, ecited by David T. Hansen, Albany, 2006, page 75 and following pages) describes Dewey’s idea of social efficiency this way (without notes and footnotes included there):

As he developed the arguments he set out in Democracy and Education, Dewey refused to allow the separation that is so often attributed to him by his critics, namely, that of acquiescing to natural impulses on the one side and / or promoting “social engineering” on the other. The error in honoring such a split, he notes, is “in implying that we must adopt measures of subordination rather than of utilization to secure efficiency”.

In short, education is not a matter of the subordination of natural impulses to absolute values, including those of social engineering (or even the other way around), but rather of socializing natural impulses in ways that reconstruct them as constructive and expansive rather than reductive, and far-ranging and comprehensive, rather than exclusive. And the test, as I have suggested, is whether such socialization encourages the expansion of the learner’s intellectual, emotional, and aesthetic horizons, and if the learner and the group of which he or she is a member become more comprehensive in terms of their connections and interrelations with other socializing forces. This is the type of social efficiency that leads to the type of increasing control of habits and institutions that Dewey termed “social control”.

This kind of social efficiency is something “John Dewey and our Educational Prospect”, describing Dewey’s concept and the American educational present tense as of 2006, would not reject at all. They rather seem to discuss how America might come closer to a goal of social efficiency.

2) a paper published by Statistics Canada’s Culture Statistics Program in December 2000 described the term this way:

Consumption implies the purchase and use of goods and services. But how does one define the consumption of culture? A broad definition of culture consumption includes looking at those Canadians who attend, view, read, listen to, participate in and buy culture products and services. As one can see, consumption has both an economic and time-use component. These components are measured in different ways using different tools. Economic consumption can be measured by monitoring our spending behaviour. Statistics Canada’s Survey of Household Spending (SHS)1 is a key source of information on the demand side of consumption. On the other hand, time use is measured by examining how we spend our time by type of activity. Do we go to culture activities and events, and how often? What kinds of culture activities and events do we attend or participate in? Various questions were added to Statistics Canada’s General Social Survey (GSS) in 1992 and 1998 to find out the answers, making it possible to develop a profile of the c culture consumer. This non-economic view of culture consumption is, in one sense, a more accurate reflection of the importance of culture in people’s lives. That is, not all culture activities require a monetary expenditure such as free outdoor music festivals, free museum admissions or the use of public libraries. As well, the GSS looks at an individual’s cultural choices while the SHS expenditure data relate to a group of individuals living together in a household.

It is quite possible that culture consumption has a context in Marxist or other relevant CCP sources, too, but to find out if that’s the case or not will be up to you. Let me know if you find such links.


» Not so Straight to the Bank, March 11, 2011
» Using the Credit Squeeze, Jan 18, 2010


Continued »

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

17th Central Committee’s “Culture Document” – 9: Arranging the Classical Records

This is the 5th chapter of the CCP central committee’s “cultural decision”.  The 4th chapter’s last paragraphs’ translations or explanations can be found here.

Main Link:

5) Exerting Great Efforts to Development of Non-Profit Cultural Causes, Safeguarding the People’s Fundamental Cultural Rights


To meet the people’s fundamental cultural needs is the fundamental task of socialist cultural construction. It is necessary to maintain governmental guidance, and to strengthen the building of a basic cultural infrastructure, to perfect a public cultural network, to let the broad masses enjoy basic public cultural services in accordance with the criteria of non-profitability, fundamentality, impartiality, and convenience, at no costs or or at favorable prices.


a) Build a public cultural service system. Strengthen the role of public cultural service as the materialization of the people’s fundamental cultural rights. It is necessary to perfect a functional, practical and highly efficient cultural service system which covers the cities and the countryside, with public finances as support, non-profitability as the backbone, the entire people as the object of this service, and by safeguarding that the people and the public watch television, listen to the radio, read books and newspapers, conduct appraisals of these, and have a share in public cultural activities and similar fundamental cultural rights. Process regular budgets for major cultural products and service projects and non-profit cultural activities. Take measures for government procurement, project subsidies, directional [or directed] sponsorship, loans, tax deduction and similar policies to encourage all kinds of cultural enterprises to participate in public cultural service. Encourage the gratuitous use of state-invested, subsidized or copyrighted cultural products within the public cultural system. Strengthen the construction of cultural centers, museums, libraries, art galleries, science museums, memorial halls, workers’ cultural palaces, youth palaces, and similar infrastructure and patriotic-educational model bases, and perfect cultural service open and free for society, encourage other state-owned cultural units educational institutions etc. to carry out non-profit cultural activites, and provide facilities for mass activities in public places. Comprehensively plan and build a cultural infrastructure on a basic level, equally emphasize project planning, construction and management, apply resource integration, and joint construction and use. Strengthen neighborhood and public cultural infrastructure, include neighborhood cultural centers’ construction in urban and rural planning and design, and broaden investment channels. Perfect cultural service infrastructure for women, minors, the elderly, and the handicapped. Guide and encourage forces within society to provide facilities and other forms of participation in public cultural service, by setting up entities, by project funding, and sponsorship. Promote the creation of national cultural service system model areas. Establish index systems for the public cultural service systems and methods to measure their achievements.


b) Developing a Modern Mass Media System. To improve the energy and influence of socialist advanced culture, it is necessary to accelerate the development a dissemination system with advanced technology, efficient transmission, and broad coverage. Party newspapers and journals, news agencies, radio and television stations, and important publishing houses must be strengthened; editorial, distribution, and dissemination systems continuously be perfected; and digitization and expansion of effective coverage be accelerated. The building of international dissemination must be strengthened, first-class international media be created, the rate of own news material, of news first published, and effective news1) must be increased. Create a unified, jointly active, safe and reliable national emergency broadcasting system. Perfect the building of a national digital library. Integrate cable television networks, and build a television network company on the national level. Promote the integration of communication networks, broadcasting networks, and the internet, the building of an integrated broadcasting control platform, a pattern of innovative business, bring all sorts of information network facilities into a function of cultural dissemination, and achieve connected, interflowing, orderly operations.


c) To establish a transmission system for superior traditional culture. Superior traditional culture condenses the Chinese nation’s restless strife and the spiritual richness of long-standing renewal is the solid foundation of developing the advanced socialist culture, and an important sustenance for the building of the Chinese nation’s common spiritual home. It is necessary to know the motherlands traditional culture, to remove what is useless, to make old things work in our times [or to put the past at the service of the present], to make it newly helpful in development, with equal emphasis on maintaining and protecting what is useful, and on its popularization. [It is necessary to] strengthen the excavation and elucidation of traditional cultural ideological values, to maintain the fundamental elements of national culture, and to let superior traditional culture become the people’s inspiration on their road forward to spiritual strength. Strengthen the arrangement and publication of cultural classics, and promote the digitization of the classical resources. Strengthen the country’s important cultural and natural heritage, the units in charge of protecting major cultural objects, the maintenance and restoration of famous historical cities, towns, and villages, and the transmission of immaterial cultural heritage. Unearth traditional popular festivals’ contents, and broaden the development of superior traditional education’s popularization. Bring into play the fundamental function of popular education in the innovation of cultural dissemination, improve the contents of lessons in superior traditional culture, and improve the establishment of teaching and training bases for superior traditional culture. Vigorously promote and regulate the use of a common state language and and written characters, scientifically protect every nationality’s lettering. Enable the prosperous development of the cause of national minorities’ culture, carry out the work of protecting the national minorities’ cultural peculiarities, strengthen party newspapers and party magazines in the language of the national minorities, radio and television programs, publications and translations. Strengthen cultural exchanges and cooperation with Hong Kong and Macau, and all kinds of cultural exchange with Taiwan, to unfold Chinese splendid2) culture together.


d) Speed up a united urban-rural cultural development. Add to the quantity of cultural services in the countryside, reduce the gap between urban and rural cultural development – to build a new pattern of united [or concerted] cultural development between the cities and the countryside is of major significance for the advancement of the new socialist countryside. With the countryside and the China’s western regions as key areas, the building of county-level cultural palaces and libraries, combined township cultural stations, rural cultural rooms must be strengthened, rural infrastructure must be deepened in terms of radio and television broadcasts, shared use of cultural information resources, rural film screenings, farming book rooms and other cultural projects which are beneficial for the people, with broadened coverage, and the elimination of blind spots, increased standards, perfected service, and improved management. Support and assistance for cultural services in old liberated areas [or early revolutionary base areas, 革命老区], national minority areas and poor areas must be intensified. The entire people’s reading, sports, and cultural scientific hygiene sanxiaxiang3) must be deepened and promoted, and scientific and educational writing styles, law and hygiene, the “Four Communities” (四进社区), giving pleasure to the grassroots and other activities must become regular.  Companies, communities [or neighborhoods] must be lead to carry out activities beneficial to migrant workers, and migrant workers be in the best possible ways be integrated into the urban cultural service systems. Joint mechanisms between the cities and their rural hinterlands must be established, cultural resources be allocated between cities and the countryside in a reasonable way, cities be encouraged to support the countryside, and helping the countryside must become a fundamental indicator of a city’s civilizational level. Cultural units must be encouraged to provide mobile services, network services, media be encouraged to arrange publication and frequency supply in the countryside, and the work of having party papers and magazines be subscribed and read for free at the rural grassroots levels. Cultural enterprise must be supported in building chains of cultural networks at the grassroots and in the countryside, cinema chains be promoted, and performing arts be extended into cities and counties, and performing artists be supported in going deep into the grassroots and the countryside to perform. Special funds are to be established at the central, provincial and municipal levels, and the allocation of certain amounts of centrally-provided funding to the building of culture in [rural] towns and villages be guaranteed.




1) This is about Chinese international media (such as China Radio International, CNTV, etc.) should begin to set the global news agenda, with news which a) hasn’t been published elsewhere before, and b) actually catches international interest. The intention probably is to make not only such media’s newscasts internationally relevant, but their editorials, too.

2) Just as in the previous lines, when translated as “superior”, the adjective used in the document is 优秀 (yōuxiù). However, I chose “splendid” as a translation here, because the intended meaning of “superior” isn’t necessarily “superior to other cultures”.  A discussion of what yōuxiù usually stands for might be useful here.

3) san xia xiang refers to the three activities mentioned above, and seem to involve stays by college students or graduates in the countryside to “spread science” there, especially in these three fields.



» Propaganda will Set You Free, Aug 9, 2009


Continued here »

Monday, November 28, 2011

17th Central Committee’s “Culture Document” – 8: Online Guidance of Public Opinion (网上舆论引导)

[Previous leg of this translation: Beautiful Melodies.]

We are still within the 4th chapter of the Central Committee’s “cultural decision” document – i. e. the chapter on Comprehensive implemention of the “Erwei” Direction and the “Shuangbai” Policy, to Provide the People with Even Better and Even More Spiritual Nourishment. For the meaning of Erwei and Shuangbai, see footnote 2 at the end of this post. For an explanation of what the “cultural decision” is about, see this post.

I’ve seen a number of comments across the internet which refer to the document as self-defeating, in one or another way, and especially for the belief that the CCP’s ham-fisted approach to “culture” will stifle cultural or civilizational development.

This belief may actually be true – but it depends on your concept of culture, or civilization. If a “Tibetan dancing troupe” is – in your own view – a true reflection of what Tibet is about, you may find the concept perfectly reasonable. Besides, while a “prosperous” cultural development with a consequential growth in international “soft power” is certainly one of the CCP leadership’s wet dreams, it will – in case of any conflicts of objectives – need to take second or third seat to an overall priority – the perpetuation of China’s totalitarian system. From that perspective, putting a flattering international image first, and thus risk losing political control, would be more self-defeating than anything else.

But above all, it doesn’t seem to make sense to discuss the effects of the document without having read the document itself. I’ve seen many referrals to and discussions about it in English-language threads on the internet, but no full translation of it in English. If you are aware of one available on- or offline, please let me know.

The following para is e), or para 5 (五) in the fourth chapter’s Chinese original.

e) A healthy internet culture needs to be developed. To strengthen the ideological and cultural front online is an urgent task within the construction of socialist culture. The directives of positive use, scientific development, legal administration and security must be conscientiously implemented, the building of internet management be strengthened and improved, online guidance of public opinion be strengthened, and the ideological mainstream be brought into play [literally: be sung, 唱响] online. The project of building online content, the promotion of disseminating traditional cultural gems and fine contemporary works, production of works which suit emerging media such as the internet and mobile phones, and netizens must be encouraged to create works of a healthy style online. Accelerated development of key news websites, the building of a number of domestically and internationally influential, comprehensive and characteristical websites, the positive role of major commercial websites, and cultivation of online contents production and companies which serve as a service backbone must be supported. A new mode of business needs to be developed in the field of internet technology, covering the high grounds of online communication and dissemination. The building of civilized websites must be broadly carried out, a civilized internet, civilized online behavior, insistence on service providers (运营服务企业) performing their legal duties and responsibilities must be promoted, so that they will not serve as channels for harmful information. The building of the internet in accordance with the law, an accelerated formation of legal standards, administrative supervision and management, self-discipline within the industrial sectors, technical safety, public supervision, social education, i. e. a combined system of internet administration must be strengthened. Guidance,  management and standards of social networks and instant messaging tools must be strengthened, and a civilized and rational internet environment be cultivated. The behavior of spreading harmful information must be punished in accordance with the law, particular action to control and ban pornographic and vulgar information be developed further, and internet crime be cracked down upon seriously. Protection of individual online information must be increased, a system to assess online security be established, and public interest and national communication security be increased.

(五)发展健康向上的网络文化。加强网上思想文化阵地建设,是社会主义文化建设的迫切任务。要认真贯彻积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,加 强和改进网络文化建设和管理,加强网上舆论引导,唱响网上思想文化主旋律。实施网络内容建设工程,推动优秀传统文化瑰宝和当代文化精品网络传播,制作适合 互联网和手机等新兴媒体传播的精品佳作,鼓励网民创作格调健康的网络文化作品。支持重点新闻网站加快发展,打造一批在国内外有较强影响力的综合性网站和特 色网站,发挥主要商业网站建设性作用,培育一批网络内容生产和服务骨干企业。发展网络新技术新业态,占领网络信息传播制高点。广泛开展文明网站创建,推动 文明办网、文明上网,督促网络运营服务企业履行法律义务和社会责任,不为有害信息提供传播渠道。加强网络法制建设,加快形成法律规范、行政监管、行业自 律、技术保障、公众监督、社会教育相结合的互联网管理体系。加强对社交网络和即时通信工具等的引导和管理,规范网上信息传播秩序,培育文明理性的网络环 境。依法惩处传播有害信息行为,深入推进整治网络淫秽色情和低俗信息专项行动,严厉打击网络违法犯罪。加大网上个人信息保护力度,建立网络安全评估机制, 维护公共利益和国家信息安全。

There seems to be nothing particularly striking about paragraph f) – or (六) -, apart from popular satisfaction as the highest standard of evaluating cultural works, and popular assessment, expert assessment and the scrutiny the works undergo in the market as combined features of an evaluation system. Awards and funding, as well as protection of intellectual property and the strengthening of copyright are also mentined in paragraph f). Evaluation, awards and funding had been mentioned earlier in the central committee’s decision, within the third chapter (Promoting the Building of a System of Socialist Core Values, Consolidating the Common Ideological and Moral Foundations of Party and National Unity for the United Battle of all Nationalities), too – see its philosophy and social sciences context here.  Their repetition in the fourth chapter (Erwei /Shuangbai) seems to indicate that the party leaders strongly believe in the allocative function of public – or official – praise. Also see Footnote 2 here, about the Five-One Project.

To be continued.

Monday, November 14, 2011

17th Central Committee’s “Culture Document” – 7: Beautiful Melodies

This is the fourth paragraph [d), or (四)] of the “Culture Document’s” (explanation here) chapter four (Comprehensively implement the “Erwei” Direction and the “Shuangbai” Policy, to Provide the People with Even Better and Even More Spiritual Nourishment).

I thought I’d translate all the remaining three paragraphs of chapter four today, but had to look up two slogans or activities within the first paragraph already – see “Notes”.  I prefer to do this translation rather thoroughly than quickly, even if it should take months. My translation’s previous leg can be found here.

Links within the following blockquote were inserted during translation.

d) More fine works in the fields of literature and art must be provided. Literature, drama, films, television, music, dance, the fine arts, photography, calligraphy, folk musical theater, acrobatics, folklore, literature for the masses and other fields of work in literature and art must actively throw themselves into the creative activities of singing the praises of the era and the people, draw on the material provided by societal life, refine their themes, passionately and vividly create and produce works with beautiful melodies, in moving ways, which are at the same time ideological, artistic, and enjoyable. The fine-works strategy1) must be implemented, the five-one projects2) be well-organized, and major projects on revolution and history, major projects supporting literature and arts, excellent works for children and creations which encourage originality and practicality must constantly be provided as literature and art. Excellent artistic cultivation which represents our country’s standing, with national and regional characteristics, must be actively developed into new styles. Encourage all literary and artistic creations which cultivate noble thoughts and feelings, delight body and mind, and combine teaching and entertainment. Vulgarity must be resisted (or boycotted, 抵制).




1) Fine-Works Strategy (精品战略)

The fine-works strategy dates back to the 1990s. Baike.Baidu refers to it as one of the boldest slogans issued by the Chinese news peoples’ trade at the time (中国新闻界提出的最具魄力的口号之一), developed in close connection with social development at the time, and with the background of the times (,都是与当时社会发展和时代背景所密切相关的):

Under the conditions of a market economy, news are a special commodity, and need to participate in market competition. As the news market matured, the sellers market turned into a buyers market, and the market demands news products of excellent quality. […] Therefore, as a matter of course, the fine-works strategy will be on the agenda. That is the irresistible trend, not a shift which would depend on volition. The target audience is what the media depend upon for their livelihood, and everything the media do is for the target audience. As the recipients have repeatedly encountered many faked, big, empty and non-specific news coverage, they yearn for accurate and excellent news products. It can therefore safely be said that the implementation of news quality strategy is what the times require, what news competition requires, what the broad audience is calling for, and the pressing need for the situation we face.
在市场经济条件下,新闻作为一个特殊商品,也必然参与市场竞争。随着新闻市场的成熟,可以说,新闻市场也已从卖方市场向买方市场转化,市场呼唤品质优良的新闻作品。[…] 因此,新闻精品战略的提出和实施,就自然而然地摆上议事日程,这是大势所趋,不以人的意志为转移。受众是媒体的衣食父母,媒体所做的一切,都是为了受众。而中国广大受众,过去曾几度接触的是较多的假、大、空、泛的新闻报道,他们企盼真实而优秀的新闻作品问世。所以,我们完全可以说,实施新闻精品战略,是时代的需要,是新闻竞争的需要,是广大受众的呼唤,是中国新闻业在新的时代、新的形势下面临的一个意义重大的紧迫

More specific history about the fine-works strategy is welcome. In all likelihood, a party decision preceded the strategy’s adoption by news people, or any other guilds.

2) Five-One Project (五个一工程)

Information about the five-one project is apparently easier to find online. According to Baike.Baidu, it is an annual “public-appraisal activity”, initiated by the CCP propaganda department (中共中央宣传部) in 1992. Every province, “autonomous region” and the municipalities directly under the central government, together with a CCP representative and the PLA political department, selects nominees for a nation-wide finale. The choice includes drama, television productions or films, books on sociology, theoretical articles on sociology, and songs. (I’m reading 限… 方面 as “limited to ..”, not as “.. excluded”). That said, I may as well be wrong, as one of the 2006 winners was a book on how to recognize stars (referring to celestial bodies, apparently).



» The CCP sighs with Emotion, July 17, 2011
» Truthfulness is Everything, April 8, 2011


Continued here »

Saturday, November 5, 2011

17th Central Committee 6th Plenary Session “Culture Document” – 5

The previous installment of this translation-in-progress can be found here. For an explanation of the translated document, click here. Links within the following blockquotes were added during translation.

d) Establish and practice the concept of socialist honor and shame. The concept of socialist honor and shame represents the fundamental requirements of socialist ethics. Propaganda and education of the socialist honor-and-shame concept must be deepened, traditional Chinese morality be popularized, the process of building citizen moral as well as social and work ethics, family morals, individual character education must be promoted. Models [i. e. people, role models] of virtue must be chosen through public appraisal, and be praised and awarded, model cases must be learned from and be propagandized, the people be guided to a stronger moral judgment and a stronger sense of moral and honor, legal obligations must be fulfilled on peoples’ own initiative, societal responsibility, family responsibility, an awareness of honor and shame must take shape throughout society, and righteousness, dedication, and promotion of harmony must become good prevailing customs. Mass activities for building spiritual civilization must be deepened, volunteerism be widened, all kinds of activities which implement morals be expanded, virtues such as patriotism, respect for work,sincerity and cordiality be promoted as norms, gender equality, respect for the elderly, love for the children, charity, support and help for the weak and the disabled, comity, and tolerance must take shape in inter-personal relations. The system of moral education in school must be comprehensively strengthened, a close educational network between schools, families, and society be built, and everyone in society be mobilized to do good work in the field of the ideological and moral education of the young. More thorough learning from Lei Feng is required, and measures to promote more habitual learning activities be taken. Civil service ethics and professional ethics must be deepened, and moral problems emerging must be dealt with individually by education and by bringing them under control. Money worship, hedonism, extreme individualism must be resolutely opposed, and unhealthy trends such as power abuse, fraud, falling for illicit personal gains, and reaping profits at the benefit of others must be resolutely rectified. The building of sincerity and trust must be put first, an honest civil service, commercial and societal sincerity as well as public trust in the building of the judiciary  be vigorously built, credit information systems that cover the entire society must be built1), punishment for dishonest behavior be intensified, and an atmosphere which guards trust and honor and which defeats untrustworthy and shameful behavior needs to take shape. Legality propaganda and education must be strengthened, the socialist spirit of rule by law be promoted, the socialist concept of rule by law be established, the entire people’s performance in terms of law be improved, learning how to respect, protect and apply [or use / benefit from the law] the law must be promoted, and the authority of the law and societal impartiality and rightfulness be upheld. Human concern and psychological guidance must be strengthened, self-respect and self-confidence, rational and moderate, positive and self-improving states of mind be cultivated. A scientific spirit must be promoted, scientific knowledge be popularized, transformation of old customs be initiated, feudalism and superstition be resisted. Education to combat corruption and to promote honesty must be deepened, and the culture of honest government be promoted.

(四)树立和践行社会主义荣辱观。社会主义荣辱观体现了社会主义道德的根本要求。要深入开展社会主义荣辱观宣传教育,弘扬中华传统美德,推进公民道德建设 工程,加强社会公德、职业道德、家庭美德、个人品德教育,评选表彰道德模范,学习宣传先进典型,引导人民增强道德判断力和道德荣誉感,自觉履行法定义务、 社会责任、家庭责任,在全社会形成知荣辱、讲正气、作奉献、促和谐的良好风尚。深化群众性精神文明创建活动,广泛开展志愿服务,拓展各类道德实践活动,倡 导爱国、敬业、诚信、友善等道德规范,形成男女平等、尊老爱幼、扶贫济困、扶弱助残、礼让宽容的人际关系。全面加强学校德育体系建设,构建学校、家庭、社 会紧密协作的教育网络,动员社会各方面共同做好青少年思想道德教育工作。深入开展学雷锋活动,采取措施推动学习活动常态化。深化政风、行风建设,开展道德 领域突出问题专项教育和治理,坚决反对拜金主义、享乐主义、极端个人主义,坚决纠正以权谋私、造假欺诈、见利忘义、损人利己的歪风邪气。把诚信建设摆在突 出位置,大力推进政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信和司法公信建设,抓紧建立健全覆盖全社会的征信系统,加大对失信行为惩戒力度,在全社会广泛形成守信光荣、 失信可耻的氛围。加强法制宣传教育,弘扬社会主义法治精神,树立社会主义法治理念,提高全民法律素质,推动人人学法尊法守法用法,维护法律权威和社会公平 正义。加强人文关怀和心理疏导,培育自尊自信、理性平和、积极向上的社会心态。弘扬科学精神,普及科学知识,倡导移风易俗、抵制封建迷信。深入开展反腐倡 廉教育,推进廉政文化建设。

4) Comprehensively implement the “Erwei” Direction and the “Shuangbai” Policy, to Provide the People with Even Better and Even More Spiritual Nourishment


To create more artistic works, unashamed of history, of our times, and the people, is an important hallmark of a prospering culture. It is essential to implement the direction of serving the people, of serving socialism, and the policy of letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools compete, to stimulate the development of advanced culture, to build a harmonious culture, to encourage the vitality of cultural creation, to improve cultural products’ quality, to bring in the factor of culture guiding the customs [or practice], educating the people, serving society, and promoting development.



a) Uphold the correct creative direction. The correct creative direction is the principal problem of cultural creation and production. All progressive cultural creation and production comes from the people, is for the people, and belongs to the people. The point of view that the people are the creators of history must be firmly established; uphold the creational guideline that the people must be at the center, sing the praises of reform and opening and and the great practice of socialist modernization, vividly demonstrate our people’s hard-working and promising spirit and style, and its splendid accomplishments in creating history. Guide the cultural workers to bear in mind their holy obligation to serve the people, and to serve socialism. Adhere to the correct cultural standpoint, conscientiously handle and positively pursue the social effects of cultural products, popularize the true, the good, and the beautiful, denounce what is false, ugly, and evil, and blend artistic exploration and creation into the cause of the Chinese nation’s great rejuvenation. Keep enhancing scientific democracy, artistic democracy, create a positive, healthy, tolerant and harmonious atmosphere, advocate and develop different viewpoints and schools in ample discussion, advocate types, subjects, shapes, methods, promote concepts, contents, styles, and schools, for positive innovation. With an innovative spirit, penetrate the process of cultural creation and production, popularize the fine national cultural traditional and May-4th-shaped revolutionary tradition. Learn from the useful achievements of foreign cultural innovation, be all-embracing, be absorbing, strengthen the epochal feeling and attractiveness of the cultural products.


b) Richly develop philosophy and social sciences. To maintain and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, it is necessary to vigorously develop philosophy and social sciences, for their important function in a better understanding of the world, to inherit and to bequeath our civilization, to innovate theory, for the political consultation and the education of the people, and to serve society. The theory and science of Marxism must be consolidated and developed.  Equal emphasis be put on fundamental and applied research, traditional and newly-developing disciplines, and cross-disciplinary research, and our country’s actual characteristics and the characteristics of our times be linked with each other. Philosophy and social sciences with Chinese characteristics and style must be built. We must adhere to the major practical issues as the main political direction, strengthen research concerning the overall, strategic and forward-looking issues, accelerate the transformation of philosophy’s and social sciences’ fruitful results [into practical application], so that they will better serve economic and social development. We must implement the innovative projects of philosophy and social sciences, apply funding and exemplification as guiding functions, advance the academic system, scientific points of view, innovative research methodology, support the establishment of projects which practice socialism with Chinese characteristics, and lend our efforts to outstanding achievements which represent our country’s standing (水准), achievements which are of global influence, and which pass the practical and historical tests. Combine the strengths of philosophy and social sciences, build bases for social science and key national laboratories, think tanks with specialized superiorities, and strengthen the infomationization of philosophy and social sciences.

(二)繁荣发展哲学社会科学。坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,必须大力发展哲学社会科学,使之更好发挥认识世界、传承文明、创新理论、咨政育人、服务社会的 重要功能。要巩固发展马克思主义理论学科,坚持基础研究和应用研究并重,传统学科和新兴学科、交叉学科并重,结合我国实际和时代特点,建设具有中国特色、 中国风格、中国气派的哲学社会科学。坚持以重大现实问题为主攻方向,加强对全局性、战略性、前瞻性问题研究,加快哲学社会科学成果转化,更好服务经济社会 发展。实施哲学社会科学创新工程,发挥国家哲学社会科学基金示范引导作用,推进学科体系、学术观点、科研方法创新,重点扶持立足中国特色社会主义实践的研 究项目,着力推出代表国家水准、具有世界影响、经得起实践和历史检验的优秀成果。整合哲学社会科学研究力量,建设一批社会科学研究基地和国家重点实验室, 建设一批具有专业优势的思想库,加强哲学社会科学信息化建设。

Continued (Nov 8th) –
part 6 »



1) this translation of 全社会的征信系统 is highly questionable, and 全社会的征信系统 may actually refer to a more general climate of trust within society – however, the only actual translation I found on the internet is the one used in the post above. (Besides, credit information is currently a big issue in China.)
2) The CCP website describes the Erwei direction as the two ways in which literature and art are supposed to serve the people, and socialism. Within this definition, the people consists of workers, peasants and soldiers, intellectuals, cadres, and all those who support socialism and who love the motherland. To serve socialism actually spelled the same thing as to serve the people, because socialism was in the interest of the people. This wasn’t meant to restrict artistic creativity, but to encourage writers and artists to serve the people and to serve socialism, to create better spiritual products, and to contribute to spiritual civilization. The same website defines the  Shuangbai policy as a policy in correspondence with the objective pattern of artistic as well as scientific and technological development and promoted that development. The Shuangbai or “double-hundreds” refers to the one-hundred flowers and one-hundred schools (百花齐放、百家争鸣 – referred to in the document’s second chapter, too) [“双百”方针是党和国家关于发展文学艺术和科学技术的基本方针,即“百花齐放,百家争鸣”,其基本精神是艺术上不同的形式和风格可以自由发展,科学上不同的学派可以自由争论。“双百”方针符合文学艺术和科学技术发展的客观规律,是促进艺术发展科学技术发展进步,促进社会主义文化繁荣和科技兴旺的方针。“二为”是指文学艺术要“为人民服务,为社会主义服务”。“为人民服务”就是为工农兵、知识分子、干部和一切拥护社会主义、热爱祖国的人们服务。社会主义是广大人民群众的根本利益所在,“为社会主义”服务也就是为人民服务,“二为”方针并不限制艺术家的创作性,而是鼓励文艺工作者在为人民服务,为社会主义服务的前提下,创作出更多更好的精神产品,为社会主义精神文明建设作贡献。(中共北京市委党校研究生部 师霞)].


Related Blogposts: Social Management »


Tuesday, November 1, 2011

17th Central Committee 6th Plenary Session “Culture Document” – 4

« part 1
« part 2
« part 3

The three preceding legs of this translation are linked to above.

b) Strengthen the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is modern-day China’s fundamental direction of development and progress, and built upon, it embodies the people’s fundamental interests and wishes to the widest degree. Education in ideals and beliefs must be deepened, cadres and the masses must be guided to deeply understand that the Chinese Communist Party and the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics are a historical necessity and superiority, deeply understand that the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the only way for accomplishing the modernization of socialism and the Chinese great rejuvenation [or comeback to former glory and prosperity – 中华民族伟大复兴的必由之路], and the only way to create a good life for the people’s good life, consciously blend individual ideals into the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and, to the greatest possible extent, unite and to cohere the people under the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, closely connect the cadres’ and the masses’ ideology and practice, closely combine the successful accomplishment of socialism with Chinese characteristics, counter social hotspots and problems,  and from the combination of theory and practice, provide convincing answers, guide the cadres and the masses to mark a clear line of distinction between right and wrong on major ideological and theoretical issues, clarify blurred understandings, and vigorously sanction wrong and decayed ideological influences. Deepen education on situational policy-making, on national affairs, revolutionary tradition, on reform and opening, defense. Organize the learning [effect] that the recent history is particularly the history of the party and the people carrying out the revolution, construction, and reform, and to expand cadres’ and the masses’ confidence and belief in socialism with Chinese characteristics.


c) Carry forward patriotism as the core of the national spirit, and reform and innovation as the core of the spirit of our times. Patriotism is the Chinese nation’s most profound ideological tradition, which is, more than others, able to move and inspire the sons and daughters to unite and struggle, reform and innovation are contemporary China’s most vivid characteristics, most able to drive the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation forward with acute minds. Education in national spirit must be expanded, patriotism, collectivism, and socialist ideology  vigorously be promoted, the national sense of self-respect, self-confidence and sense of pride be strengthened, the people must be invigorated with enthusiasm1) to the practice of rejuvenating the Chinese nation, to fervently love the motherland and to devote all ones strength to the building of the motherland must spell the greatest honor, and harm [done] to the motherland’s interests or dignity must spell the greatest shame. Widely develop education in the spirit of our times, guide cadres and masses to forever maintain and their advancement with the times, a pioneering and innovating state of mind, never self-satisfied, never rigid, and never stagnant, to promote the cause incessantly and to maintain development. Vigorously carry forward what serves the country’s prosperity, national rejuvenation, the people’s well-being [or happiness, 幸福], society’s harmonious ideological and consciousness, vigorously enhance the struggle against privation, the glory of work, and apply the apply the fine tradition of retrenchment and thriftiness. Strengthen the education of national unity and progress, promote the identification with the great motherland and Chinese nation, advance all [PRC] nationalities’ united and combined struggle, and their glorious development. Strengthen the construction of patriotic education bases as a base [corrected on Sept 17, 2012], make good use of red tourism resources, and let these become important classrooms for cultivating a national sonscience and a conscience of our times.2)


Continued (Nov 5) –
part 5 »


1) 热情化 (rèqínghuà) would literally mean something like “enthusiasmation” (if such a word exists in English). It seems to stand for a kind of process of “making people enthusiastic”.
2) resources (资源) refers to “red tourism’s” travel destinations.



» Li Changchun meets All-China Journalists Association, CMP, October 31
» Sinopec Holds Meeting to Study the Sixth Plenary Session of the 17th CPC Central Committee, Sinopec website, October 20, 2011
» Truthfulness is Everything, April 8, 2011


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