Search Results for “"Xu Qiliang"”

Friday, November 6, 2009

Xu Qiliang: A Blue Sky full of Peace and Hope

If General Xu Qiliang (许其亮), formerly Air Force Chief of Staff and now the PLA’s Deputy Chief of Staff, member of the Central Military Commission (CMC), and member of the 17th CPC Central Committee, had intended to impress the outside world, he may count some of his recent remarks*) as a success. Xu had called the militarization of space a historic inevitability, and said that the country’s military was developing offensive and defensive operations in space. He had made his remarks in an interview with the CCP’s news agency  Xinhua (Jiefang Daily is also mentioned in some Chinese articles) published on Monday, when he had called for more domestically developed war planes and discussed the technological advances of the Chinese air force in an interview, writes the Times of India. His talk of a “Great Wall of Steel in the Blue Sky” in the interview apparently caught some international attention.

Naturally, he didn’t fail to add that the only purpose of the air force was to guard China’s sovereignty and protect world peace and stability.

Anyway, on Tuesday, General Kevin Chilton, head of U.S. Strategic Command, expressed how amazed he was at the advancement that China has made in such a short period of time, whether that be in their unmanned program or the manned program.

Chilton acknowledged that space had become an arena for military rivalry, with an increasing number of countries pursuing space-based weaponry — including Iran and North Korea:

“Clearly, I think what we’ve all come to understand is that space is a contested domain. It used to be looked at like a sanctuary. And clearly that’s not the case today.”

But so much acknowledgment was apparently much too kind for the CCP, or at least for its cvilian leadership. On Thursday, Foreign Ministry spokesman Ma Zhaoxu (马朝旭) told the regular press conference that

“China has always advocated the peaceful use of outer space, and opposed the weaponization of outer space and arms races there […] China has not, and will never, participate in any kind of arms race in outer space. We have not changed our stance.”

And General Xu, too, apparently had some chalk for breakfast on Thursday, before attending an international forum on peace and development on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Air Force’s establishment. On the forum, attended by delegations from the air forces of New Zealand, Thailand, Turkey, Portugal, Russia, the United States, Chile, and twenty-seven more countries, he told the delegations that China will uphold the concepts of peace, development, and cooperation. China wished to work with countries worldwide to carry out flexible diverse exchange and cooperation on various levels and in various fields, and fill the Blue Sky with Peace and Hope.

Jiefang Daily and a paper named Morning News (晨报, republished here by write that Western media distorted what China said (西方媒体曲解中方讲话). French media in particular had interpreted General Xu’s statement as a change of strategy, in that China was now planning to build defense and strike capabilities in space. Morning News – direct or indirect speech – quotes General Xu’s original wording as

From the perspective of the trends in the transformation of the world militaries, military force and competition is now turning to the fields of air and space. The establishment of military force is incessantly expanding towards space. This is an irresistible general trend, this kind of expansion is historically inevitable, this kind of development is irreversible.

A commenter at Xi Lu Military Affairs quotes the upper para as a direct-speech quote and adds what an Air Force Command College’s deputy training manager, Colonel Wang Mingliang (王明亮) reportedly told Huanqiu Shibao (环球时报 – article apparently not available online on the paper’s website). Xu Qiliang’s remarks, compared to the Aerospace Integration concept (空天一体化) formerly maintained by the PLA, did indeed show a change, Colonel Wang reportedly said. But this kind of change, he added, was in step with the whole world’s continuously deepening understanding of the Aerospace Integration Theory (但这种变化是和全世界对空天一体化理论的理解不断加深同步进行的).

In short: no arms race in space – only aerospace integration.


*) I didn’t find the original interview with General Xu online. Links would be welcome.

“Militarization of Space is a Fact of Life”, Airforce Magazine, March 2001

Monday, July 14, 2014

Monday Start-of-Work Links: Debauchery, Demonic Fetuses, and War

1. Vietnam’s Key Ally

Vietnam “can’t fight Chinese encroachment alone”, writes Tuong Lai, a  sociologist, also known as Nguyen Phuoc Tuong, and a former adviser to two Vietnamese prime ministers, according to the New York Times. The key ally for Vietnam today is the United States — an alliance that the Vietnamese liberation hero Ho Chi Minh ironically always wanted.

2. Shinzo Abe ends Tour of  New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea

Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe arrived back in Tokyo on Saturday afternoon. He had visited New Zealand, Australia and Papua New Guinea during a trip that began the previous Sunday, according to Radio Japan:

He briefed leaders of the 3 countries on his Cabinet’s decision to reinterpret the Constitution to allow Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
He sought their understanding on Japan’s aim to proactively contribute to global and regional peace and security.

Reinterpretation – or a constitutional putsch, as Jeff Kingston describes it in an article for the Japan Times.

Abe has decided to allow his country to go to war in the defence of its allies. The polite cover story is that Japan needs to be able to help the US in defending itself against the dangerous crazies of North Korea,

writes Peter Hartcher of the Sydney Morning Herald, adding that

The reality is that Japan is bracing for the possibility of war with China.

Meantime, on Saturday, China Youth Net (中国青年网) briefed its readers about what it describes as an anti-communist, anti-China policy with a continuity from former Japanese prime minister Nobusuke Kishi – be it from his days as prime minister from 1957 to 1960, be it from his days in Manchuria – to current prime minister Shinzo Abe:

The [CCTV] report says that Kishi lived a life of debauchery while in China, with alcohol and whores every night. He was called the demon of Manchuria. After the war, he was rated a class A war criminal but in the end managed to avoid trial, becoming Japanese prime minister in 1957. During his term, Kishi actively promoted anti-communism and anti-China, modified the the policies of the peaceful constitution, just as Abe is doing these days. It is exactly the mantle of this war-criminal grandfather.


The article also mentions the Nagasaki flag incident:

Kishi was hostile to New China (i. e. communist China). After coming to power, the winds of Japanese politics quickly turned right, with activities hostile towards China. During April and May 1958, the Japan-China Friendship Association’s Nagasaki branch held an exhibition of Chinese stamps and paper cuts. During the exhibition, two thugs tore the Five-Starred Red Flag down, causing the “Nagasaki Flag Incident” which shocked China and Japan, while Kishi actually said that “the article that makes the damaging of foreign flags a punishable crime does not apply to China.” This matter caused outrage in China. In May of the same year, the Chinese government announced that the limits of Chinese tolerance had been reached and that under these circumstances, trade and cultural exchange with Japan would be cut off. After that, Sino-Japanese relations withdrew to the initial stages of the post-war period. Until Kishi stepped down in 1960 and Hayato Ikeda formed a new cabinet, Sino-Japanese relations made a turn for the better again.

岸信介敌视新中国。在他上台后,日本的政治风向迅速右转,进行了一系列敌视中国的活动。1958年四五月间,日中友好协会长崎支部举办中国邮票剪纸展览 会,期间会场上悬挂的五星红旗被两名暴徒撤下撕毁,制造了震惊中日两国的“长崎国旗事件”,而岸信介居然称:“日本刑法关于损坏外国国旗将受惩罚的条款, 不适用于中国。”此事激起了中方的极大愤慨。同年5月11日,中国政府宣布,中方在忍无可忍的情况下决定断绝同日本的贸易往来和文化交流。此后,中日关系 倒退到战后初期状态。直到1960年岸信介下台,池田勇人组织新内阁,中日关系才出现转机。


While Kishi has a bad reputation in China, Japan’s current prime minister Shinzo Abe, when referrring to this maternal grandfather, blew the trumpet [to his praise]. In his book, “Beautiful Japan”, he acknowledges that “my political DNA has inherited more from Nobusuke Kishi’s genes.”



Kishi’s reputation in South Korea isn’t good either. However, his name may serve to insult South Korean politicians. A South Korean member of parliament

described President Park and her Japanese counterpart, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, as the offspring of “demonic fetuses” that should not have been born ― in reference to ex-President Park Chung-hee and ex-Japanese leader Nobusuke Kishi.

In Australia, the government’s policy towards China and Japan appears to be causing headaches. Peter Hartcher of the Sydney Morning Herald notes that

[t]o now, the government and opposition have agreed on how Australia should deal with China. That agreement fell apart this week. It fell apart after the leader of Japan, China’s arch-rival, came to town.

Apparently, Hartcher writes, Australia’s foreign minister

Julie Bishop spoke in anticipation of the potential reaction from Beijing in an interview with Fairfax Media’s John Garnaut.
The story in Thursday’s paper began: “Australia will stand up to China to defend peace, liberal values and the rule of law, says Foreign Minister Julie Bishop.
“In the Coalition government’s clearest statement yet on how to handle China, Ms Bishop said it had been a mistake for previous governments to avoid speaking about China for fear of causing offence.
“China doesn’t respect weakness,” the article quoted Bishop as saying.

Labor disagreed. And once the can had been opened, alleged euphemisms by prime minister Tony Abbott about Japan’s war on its neighbors, made in reply to Abe, became an issue, too.

All that after Abe had left for Papua New Guinea, and before any words of disapproval had emerged from Beijing.

3. Xinjiang: Have you eaten?

The old traditional Han-Chinese greeting – “did you eat?” – has apparently become a genuine question in Xinjiang. As Han-Chinese cultural imperialism shows concern not only for the spirutual, but also the tangible nourishment of the  colony the autonomous region, Muslim students are forced to have meals with professors to ensure they are not fasting during the current Ramadan, reports the BBC‘s Martin Patience.

4. Four more Generals

Four Chinese military officers have become generals. Xi Jinping, in his capacity as the party and state Central Military Commission (CMC), issued the promotions and took part in the ceremony on Friday. The promoted officers are Deputy Chief of General Staff (副总参谋长) of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Qi Jianguo (戚建国), Commander of the Shenyang Military Area Command (沈阳军区司令员) Wang Jiaocheng (王教成), Political Commissar of the Shenyang Military Area Command (政治委员) Chu Yimin (褚益民) and Political Commissar of the Guangzhou Military Area Command (广州军区政治委员) Wei Liang (魏亮). CMC vice chairmen Fan Changlong (范长龙) and Xu Qiliang (许其亮) also attended the ceremony.

In neat military formation and high spirits, the promoted officers went to the Chairman’s rostrum. Xi Jinping handed them their letters of appointment and cordially shook their hands to congratulate them. The four military officers, wearing general’s epaulets, saluted to Xi Jinping and the other leading comrades and to all comrades attending the ceremony, and enthusiastic applause rose from the whole audience.


CMC members Chang Wanquan, Fang Fenghui, Zhang Yang, Zhao Keshi, Zhang Youxia, Wu Shengli, Ma Xiaotian and Wei Fenghe attended the promotion ceremony.


The ceremony ended with the resonant sound of military songs. Afterwards, Xi Jinping and other leading comrades stood for a souvenir photo with the promoted officers.


Also in attendance were all the PLA headquarters, all big Danweis (units) of Beijing, leaders of the General Office of Central Military Commission, and others.


Friday, November 16, 2012

Current CCP Politbureau Members, and a few Guesses

Red line numbers (column 1): new to the politbureau. Red crosses (column 4): new to the standing committee.

# name born stand
ing com
majors party func tion state func tion leanings
1. Xi Jinping (习近平)  1953  x chem. engin eering gen. secre tary vice chair man prince ling
2. Ma Kai (马凯)  1946 pol. eco nomics state coun cil
3. Wang Qishan (王岐山)  1948  x history (fina nce?) dis cip line state coun cil prince ling
4. Wang Huning (王沪宁)  1955 French inter- natio- nal poli tics re sear ch
5. Liu Yunshan (刘云山)  1947  x journal ism (pro bably) pro pa gan da youth league
6. Liu Yandong (刘延东)  1945 chemi stry state coun cil youth league
7. Liu Qibao (刘奇葆)  1953 econ omic plan ning Sichu an party secr.
8. Xu Qiliang (许其亮)  1950 de fense  CMC
9. Sun Chunlan (孙春兰)  1950 party crash cour  ses youth league
10. Sun Zhengcai (孙政才)  1963 agri culture Jilin party secr.
11. Li Keqiang (李克强)  1955  x law, eco nomics state coun cil youth league
12. Li Jianguo (李建国)  1946 literat ure NPC secre tary gen. NPC vice cha ir
13. Li Yuanchao (李源潮)  1950 math, e conom. manag ement org gan izat. dept.
14. Wang Yang (汪洋)  1955 political econo mics Guan gdo ng party secr. refor mist
15. Zhang Chunxian (张春贤)  1953 engin eering Xin jiang party secr.
16. Zhang Gaoli (张高丽)  1946  x econon omics Tian jin party secr.
17. Zhang Dejiang (张德江)  1946  x Korean, econ omics Chon gqing party secr. hardline
18. Fan Changlong (范长龙)  1947 Xuan- hua Artillery College & others CMC
19. Meng Jianzhu (孟建柱)  1947 systems engin eering state coun cil (pub lic se curi ty)
20. Zhao Leji (赵乐际)  1957 philo sophy Shaan xi party secr.
21. Hu Chunhua (胡春华)  1963 Chinese, literat ure Inner Mong olia party secr. youth league
22. Yu Zhengsheng (俞正声)  1945  x electron ic engin eering, automa ted mis siles Shang hai party secr. keeper of the Deng Xiao ping grail
23. Li Zhanshu (栗战书)  1950 centr al com mittee office Hei long jiang gov er nor
24. Guo Jinlong (郭金龙)  1947 physics, acou stics Bei jing party secr.
25. Han Zheng (韩正)  1954 econom ics Shang hai mayor Shang- hai Cli que (but) Hu Jintao

The exclusion of a role held by Zhou Yongkang could be a message for Zhou and his supporters, rather than an indication of policy, suggests the Committee to Protect Journalists blog (CPJ). Zhou ranked 9th in the previous standing committee, and in his state (rather than party) function, he oversaw China’s security forces and law enforcement institutions.

Propaganda, of course, has a seat in the standing committee, with Liu Yunshan, and diplomacy stays out, as it did previously (unless a now sitting member becomes foreign minister next year).

Indirectly, the “United Front” is also represented at the standing committee. Liu Yandong headed that department for special party relations from 2002 to 2007. The “United Front” is also the organization whose website carries news about telegram exchanges between Hu Jintao / Xi Jinping  with Taiwan’s president Ma Ying-jeou, as the top headline. They reportedly communicated in their capacities as former CCP secretary general (Hu), the CCP’s new secretary general (Xi), and the KMT’s chairman (Ma).

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Militarization of Space: “China can’t stay Idle”

Huanqiu Shibao, on Wednesday, quoted Taiwan’s United Daily News (UDN, 聯合報) as reporting that Taiwan’s computerized Han Kuang 27 Exercise (漢光27號演習) is scheduled to begin on July 18, for a duration of five days. Asked if the military exercise would include China’s new aircraft carrier as a factor, assistant chief of staff Hau Yi-chi (郝以知) hadn’t answered the question directly, but replied that three years earlier, Han Kuang 24 had included anti-aircraft training (航空母舰反制演练),

supposing a PLAN aircraft carrier emerging east of Taiwan, to which Taiwan had “denied access” (deterrence) and attacked.

Taiwan’s “defense ministry” said that the need to meet growing PLA strength, updated equipment, and combat training changes had been brought into this year’s exercise, and after they had been found feasible,  they had been officially included into the operational plans.

The Taipei Times, also on Wednesday, suggested in its headline that the exercise would actually focus on a (or the) Chinese aircraft carrier. While the July 18 – 22 exercise will be computerized, the live-fire portion had been conducted in April. “Given the Chinese communists’ rapidly expanding military might, the defense ministry has centered on asymmetric warfare during the previous exercises”, the Taipei Times quotes Hau Yi-chi. Defense capabilities in the event of a surprise attack were also to be evaluated.

On Tuesday, Huanqiu Shibao quoted from a Journal of Strategic Studies (UK) report, which had suggested that China was developing cutting-edge satellites that would allow it to project power far beyond its shores and deter the United States from using aircraft carriers. The Huanqiu article didn’t comment on the report’s accuracy. One of the commenters within the thread underneath expected a fight anyway: “Rogue countries around the globe want to see a fight between China and America, they want to look at that funny story and to profit from the center (between the two warring parties – or would cóngzhōng yúlì mean “to profit from China? – 全世界的坏蛋国家都想看中美打仗,它们都想看笑话并从中渔利). Unmistakenly, another commenter decides that 全是屁话 – “this is all bullshit”. Voices of hope – “I hope this will come true, soon” (希望早日实现) and “I’m looking forward to this turning into fighting capacity” (期待早日形成战斗力) -are also among the first dozen comments.

Beijing has consistently denied it has anything other than peaceful plans for space and says its growing military spending and prowess are for defensive purposes and modernisation of outdated forces,

Reuters wrote on Monday, but signals in recent years, official statements aside, have been ambiguous, or to the contrary. In 2009,  Xu Qiliang (许其亮), the PLA’s airforce commander and a member of the CCP’s central military commission (CMC), called the militarization of space a “historic inevitability”, even if a  foreign ministry spokesman later told a press conference that China has not, and will never, participate in any kind of arms race in outer space. We have not changed our stance.

An Air Force Comand College’s manager, Colonel Wang Mingliang, told Huanqiu Shibao in March or April 2009 that there were indeed changes in the Aerospace Integration Concept. These were, however,  in step with a globally deepening understanding of the concept. People’s Daily and/or Huanqiu Shibao interpreted Wang Mingliang’s and another expert’s, Wang Mingzhi (王明志) as misinterpretations (曲解) by foreign media. Wang Mingzhi, also of the Air Force Command College, was quoted as saying that growing factors of uncertainty in the area of space had been an objective reason for the PLA to issue a new space defense concept. What was less than 20,000 meters high was frequently regarded as air space, and what was more than 100,000 meters high were outer space (or the universe, 太空). International law determined that there was free passage in outer space, while (territorial) air space could not be violated. But how to categorize what was in-between air space and outer space wasn’t clearly specified, and competition between the great countries (大国) concerning this field had become very intense.

Wang Mingliang again was quoted as saying that, given that not only America and Russia, but other strong countries, too, were building air and space power (其他国家也在建设空天力量), China had to maintain vigilance and develop defensive spatial power, rather than sitting idly like a scholar. Space integration wasn’t only a trend in the military field, but the trend of the entire era.


» Legal Status, Wikipedia (as last modified on July 12, 2011, 15:28)


Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Chinese Statistics: American Companies “lose Chinese market” over Taiwan

Raytheon Company (雷神公司) “loses business in China” because of its role in arms sales to Taiwan, according to the official Chinese paper Huanqiu Shibao (Global Times) on Monday, quoted by Singapore’s United Morning News on Tuesday. The company is to sell updated Patriot Systems to Taiwan in a contract approved by former U.S. president George W. Bush in 2008, and cleared by the U.S. Department of Defense this month. Huanqiu quoted an unnamed authoritative person as saying that a British Raytheon subsidiary had tried since 2000 to participate in Shanghai-Beijing-Guangzhou air traffic control and in China’s civil aviation system’s radar and air traffic control automization projects, but that all their bids had failed. The article also suggests that Raytheon hadn’t been found in any procurement and bidding records for Chinese radar projects, and that China hadn’t imported any products made by the company since 2004. Raytheon had since withdrawn its representation office from China. Lockheed Martin had also “lost Chinese markets” (失去了在中国的市场), according to the article.

The purpose of the article seems to be to back up comments reportedly made by Chinese top military officials that China should take defensive countermeasures against companies which sold weapons to Taiwan, but also wanted to sell aircraft and other goods to China, or that European countries would not dare to risk business with China by selling arms to Taiwan.

Probably also in a reaction to the Taiwan arms deal cleared this month, Xinhua published an unspecified report about a successful test of an emerging Chinese anti-missile system.

The foreign military sales contract with Taiwan totals $1.1 billion, according to Raytheon Company’s website.


Remotely Related:
Xu Qiliang: “A Blue Sky full of Peace and Hope”, November 6, 2009

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